INTELLECTUM VIRTUS

INTELLECTUM VIRTUS

INTELLECTUM VIRTUS

INTELLECTUM VIRTUS

INTELLECTUM VIRTUS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
DEFINITIONS & FORMULAE
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
A
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation A
Compression technique that encodes only the difference between sequential samples and differs from a DPCM by varying the step size to reduce the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.



Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation A
Compression technique that encodes only the difference between sequential samples and differs from a DPCM by varying the step size to reduce the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.



Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation A
Compression technique that encodes only the difference between sequential samples and differs from a DPCM by varying the step size to reduce the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.



Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation A
Compression technique that encodes only the difference between sequential samples and differs from a DPCM by varying the step size to reduce the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.



Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation A
Compression technique that encodes only the difference between sequential samples and differs from a DPCM by varying the step size to reduce the required bandwidth for a given signal-to-noise ratio.



Add / Drop Multiplexer A
Synchronous transmission networks carrying multiple channels use this device to prioritise data by inserting (add) or removing (drop) lower-data-rate channel traffic from the higher-rate aggregated channel.



Add / Drop Multiplexer A
Synchronous transmission networks carrying multiple channels use this device to prioritise data by inserting (add) or removing (drop) lower-data-rate channel traffic from the higher-rate aggregated channel.



Add / Drop Multiplexer A
Synchronous transmission networks carrying multiple channels use this device to prioritise data by inserting (add) or removing (drop) lower-data-rate channel traffic from the higher-rate aggregated channel.



Add / Drop Multiplexer A
Synchronous transmission networks carrying multiple channels use this device to prioritise data by inserting (add) or removing (drop) lower-data-rate channel traffic from the higher-rate aggregated channel.



Add / Drop Multiplexer A
Synchronous transmission networks carrying multiple channels use this device to prioritise data by inserting (add) or removing (drop) lower-data-rate channel traffic from the higher-rate aggregated channel.



Advanced Configuration and Power Interface A
Industry-standard specification, co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba, for operating-system-directed power management for laptop, desktop, and server computers.



Advanced Configuration and Power Interface A
Industry-standard specification, co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba, for operating-system-directed power management for laptop, desktop, and server computers.



Advanced Configuration and Power Interface A
Industry-standard specification, co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba, for operating-system-directed power management for laptop, desktop, and server computers.



Advanced Configuration and Power Interface A
Industry-standard specification, co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba, for operating-system-directed power management for laptop, desktop, and server computers.



Advanced Configuration and Power Interface A
Industry-standard specification, co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba, for operating-system-directed power management for laptop, desktop, and server computers.



Advanced Power Management A
Power management standard for computers that provides five power states: Ready, Stand-by, Suspended, Hibernation and Off.



Advanced Power Management A
Power management standard for computers that provides five power states: Ready, Stand-by, Suspended, Hibernation and Off.



Advanced Power Management A
Power management standard for computers that provides five power states: Ready, Stand-by, Suspended, Hibernation and Off.



Advanced Power Management A
Power management standard for computers that provides five power states: Ready, Stand-by, Suspended, Hibernation and Off.



Advanced Power Management A
Power management standard for computers that provides five power states: Ready, Stand-by, Suspended, Hibernation and Off.



Aliasing A
A/D Conversion, utilises the Nyquist principle, which states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal. If the sampling rate is insufficient, then higher-frequency components are “undersampled” and appear shifted to lower-frequencies and are known as aliases. The frequencies that shift are sometimes called “folded” frequencies as the spectral plot appears folded to superimpose the higher frequency components over the sub-Nyquist portion of the band.



Aliasing A
A/D Conversion, utilises the Nyquist principle, which states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal. If the sampling rate is insufficient, then higher-frequency components are “undersampled” and appear shifted to lower-frequencies and are known as aliases. The frequencies that shift are sometimes called “folded” frequencies as the spectral plot appears folded to superimpose the higher frequency components over the sub-Nyquist portion of the band.



Aliasing A
A/D Conversion, utilises the Nyquist principle, which states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal. If the sampling rate is insufficient, then higher-frequency components are “undersampled” and appear shifted to lower-frequencies and are known as aliases. The frequencies that shift are sometimes called “folded” frequencies as the spectral plot appears folded to superimpose the higher frequency components over the sub-Nyquist portion of the band.



Aliasing A
A/D Conversion, utilises the Nyquist principle, which states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal. If the sampling rate is insufficient, then higher-frequency components are “undersampled” and appear shifted to lower-frequencies and are known as aliases. The frequencies that shift are sometimes called “folded” frequencies as the spectral plot appears folded to superimpose the higher frequency components over the sub-Nyquist portion of the band.



Aliasing A
A/D Conversion, utilises the Nyquist principle, which states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum bandwidth of the analogue signal. If the sampling rate is insufficient, then higher-frequency components are “undersampled” and appear shifted to lower-frequencies and are known as aliases. The frequencies that shift are sometimes called “folded” frequencies as the spectral plot appears folded to superimpose the higher frequency components over the sub-Nyquist portion of the band.



Alternating Current A
Form of electrical power in which the flow of electric charge changes polarity each half-cycle of a sinewave. Electric power is distributed in this form as high voltage transmitted through power lines reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, then at the residence, the voltage is reduced.

Discovered by Nicola Tesla, 1886




Alternating Current A
Form of electrical power in which the flow of electric charge changes polarity each half-cycle of a sinewave. Electric power is distributed in this form as high voltage transmitted through power lines reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, then at the residence, the voltage is reduced.

Discovered by
Nicola Tesla, 1886




Alternating Current A
Form of electrical power in which the flow of electric charge changes polarity each half-cycle of a sinewave. Electric power is distributed in this form as high voltage transmitted through power lines reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, then at the residence, the voltage is reduced.

Discovered by
Nicola Tesla, 1886




Alternating Current A
Form of electrical power in which the flow of electric charge changes polarity each half-cycle of a sinewave. Electric power is distributed in this form as high voltage transmitted through power lines reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, then at the residence, the voltage is reduced.

Discovered by
Nicola Tesla, 1886




Alternating Current A
Form of electrical power in which the flow of electric charge changes polarity each half-cycle of a sinewave. Electric power is distributed in this form as high voltage transmitted through power lines reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, then at the residence, the voltage is reduced.

Discovered by
Nicola Tesla, 1886




American Wire Gauge A
Known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardised wire gauge system in use since 1857, beginning in North America, then adopted throughout the world for standard measures for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is essential in determining its current-carrying capacity.

Invented by Joseph Rodgers, 1857




American Wire Gauge A
Known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardised wire gauge system in use since 1857, beginning in North America, then adopted throughout the world for standard measures for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is essential in determining its current-carrying capacity.

Invented by
Joseph Rodgers, 1857




American Wire Gauge A
Known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardised wire gauge system in use since 1857, beginning in North America, then adopted throughout the world for standard measures for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is essential in determining its current-carrying capacity.

Invented by
Joseph Rodgers, 1857




American Wire Gauge A
Known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardised wire gauge system in use since 1857, beginning in North America, then adopted throughout the world for standard measures for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is essential in determining its current-carrying capacity.

Invented by
Joseph Rodgers, 1857




American Wire Gauge A
Known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge, is a standardised wire gauge system in use since 1857, beginning in North America, then adopted throughout the world for standard measures for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is essential in determining its current-carrying capacity.

Invented by
Joseph Rodgers, 1857




Ampacity A
Measured in Amperes, A and is a measurement of the maximum amount of electric current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining irreversible deterioration and is defined by operating temperature, insulation, conductor resistance, current frequency and the ability to dissipate heat.

Discovered by Arthur Edwin Kennelly, 1895




Ampacity A
Measured in Amperes, A and is a measurement of the maximum amount of electric current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining irreversible deterioration and is defined by operating temperature, insulation, conductor resistance, current frequency and the ability to dissipate heat.

Discovered by
Arthur Edwin Kennelly, 1895




Ampacity A
Measured in Amperes, A and is a measurement of the maximum amount of electric current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining irreversible deterioration and is defined by operating temperature, insulation, conductor resistance, current frequency and the ability to dissipate heat.

Discovered by
Arthur Edwin Kennelly, 1895




Ampacity A
Measured in Amperes, A and is a measurement of the maximum amount of electric current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining irreversible deterioration and is defined by operating temperature, insulation, conductor resistance, current frequency and the ability to dissipate heat.

Discovered by
Arthur Edwin Kennelly, 1895




Ampacity A
Measured in Amperes, A and is a measurement of the maximum amount of electric current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining irreversible deterioration and is defined by operating temperature, insulation, conductor resistance, current frequency and the ability to dissipate heat.

Discovered by
Arthur Edwin Kennelly, 1895




Ampere A
Ampere, A

SI Base Unit

Electric Current, I

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”

Discovered by André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Ampere A
Ampere, A

SI Base Unit

Electric Current, I

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Ampere A
Ampere, A

SI Base Unit

Electric Current, I

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Ampere A
Ampere, A

SI Base Unit

Electric Current, I

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Ampere A
Ampere, A

SI Base Unit

Electric Current, I

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Ampere-hour A
Measurement of the current capacity or rate of usage of an electrical supply, in Ampere-hours, Ah and describes the use of one amp of current, flowing for a duration of one hour or 3,600 coulombs.



Ampere-hour A
Measurement of the current capacity or rate of usage of an electrical supply, in Ampere-hours, Ah and describes the use of one amp of current, flowing for a duration of one hour or 3,600 coulombs.



Ampere-hour A
Measurement of the current capacity or rate of usage of an electrical supply, in Ampere-hours, Ah and describes the use of one amp of current, flowing for a duration of one hour or 3,600 coulombs.



Ampere-hour A
Measurement of the current capacity or rate of usage of an electrical supply, in Ampere-hours, Ah and describes the use of one amp of current, flowing for a duration of one hour or 3,600 coulombs.



Ampere-hour A
Measurement of the current capacity or rate of usage of an electrical supply, in Ampere-hours, Ah and describes the use of one amp of current, flowing for a duration of one hour or 3,600 coulombs.



Amplifier Classes A
Class A: Simplest type of amplifier, whereby the output transistors conduct (without fully turning off) irrespective of the output waveform of the signal and is typically associated with high linearity and low efficiency.


Class AB: Combining “Class A” and “Class B” amplifiers, results in a more efficient amplifier, yet requires further improvement to lower distortion by biasing both transistors so they conduct when the signal approaches zero. This improves the individual component amplifiers with smoother transistors transitions in “Class B”. The “Class A” element of a small signal, initiates both transistors, until a large signal is present, then return to the alternating transistors, commanding each half of the waveform.


Class B: Output transistors will only conduct during half (180 degrees) of the signal waveform. To amplify the complete signal, one transistor is used to conduct for positive output signal and the another for the negative output. Efficiency is improved over the “Class A” Amplifier, yet still retains high distortion due to a transition point where the two transistors are turned on to off.


Class C: Switching amplifiers, with transistors on for less than a half cycle and are required for short pulses, a trigger. “Class C” amplifiers are very efficient as the transistors are off most of the time and when on, they are in full conduction. They deliver high distortion for use in filtration, often in RF circuits, where tuning circuits can restore the original signal and reduce distortion.


Class D: Producing an output of a switching waveform, at high frequency, the low-pass filtered, average value of this waveform contours to the actual required audio waveform producing a highly efficient amplifier by capitalising on the component characteristics, such as the low resolve of the linear aspect of output transistors and ensuring switching is fully on or fully off, removing linear issues.


Class G: Similar in design to “Class AB” amplifiers with an improvement in the use of two or more supply voltages.
As a cascade of select voltages, low signal levels are comparable to the appropriate amplification voltage and proportionately increasing or decreasing as per the signal, maintaining optimum performance without inefficient loss of current, pronounced in other classes of amplifier.


Class H: Modulation of supply voltages to the output devices of the amplifier, maintains a supportive mimic relationship to the signal waveform, never exceeding the signal swing. By reducing the dissipation across the output devices, the amplifier operates as an optimised “Class AB” efficiency irrespective of the output level. The key defining aspect of this amplifier is the predictive nature of the supply voltage and the excessive components to predict this.



Amplifier Classes A
Class A: Simplest type of amplifier, whereby the output transistors conduct (without fully turning off) irrespective of the output waveform of the signal and is typically associated with high linearity and low efficiency.


Class AB: Combining “Class A” and “Class B” amplifiers, results in a more efficient amplifier, yet requires further improvement to lower distortion by biasing both transistors so they conduct when the signal approaches zero. This improves the individual component amplifiers with smoother transistors transitions in “Class B”. The “Class A” element of a small signal, initiates both transistors, until a large signal is present, then return to the alternating transistors, commanding each half of the waveform.


Class B: Output transistors will only conduct during half (180 degrees) of the signal waveform. To amplify the complete signal, one transistor is used to conduct for positive output signal and the another for the negative output. Efficiency is improved over the “Class A” Amplifier, yet still retains high distortion due to a transition point where the two transistors are turned on to off.


Class C: Switching amplifiers, with transistors on for less than a half cycle and are required for short pulses, a trigger. “Class C” amplifiers are very efficient as the transistors are off most of the time and when on, they are in full conduction. They deliver high distortion for use in filtration, often in RF circuits, where tuning circuits can restore the original signal and reduce distortion.


Class D: Producing an output of a switching waveform, at high frequency, the low-pass filtered, average value of this waveform contours to the actual required audio waveform producing a highly efficient amplifier by capitalising on the component characteristics, such as the low resolve of the linear aspect of output transistors and ensuring switching is fully on or fully off, removing linear issues.


Class G: Similar in design to “Class AB” amplifiers with an improvement in the use of two or more supply voltages.
As a cascade of select voltages, low signal levels are comparable to the appropriate amplification voltage and proportionately increasing or decreasing as per the signal, maintaining optimum performance without inefficient loss of current, pronounced in other classes of amplifier.


Class H: Modulation of supply voltages to the output devices of the amplifier, maintains a supportive mimic relationship to the signal waveform, never exceeding the signal swing. By reducing the dissipation across the output devices, the amplifier operates as an optimised “Class AB” efficiency irrespective of the output level. The key defining aspect of this amplifier is the predictive nature of the supply voltage and the excessive components to predict this.



Amplifier Classes A
Class A: Simplest type of amplifier, whereby the output transistors conduct (without fully turning off) irrespective of the output waveform of the signal and is typically associated with high linearity and low efficiency.


Class AB: Combining “Class A” and “Class B” amplifiers, results in a more efficient amplifier, yet requires further improvement to lower distortion by biasing both transistors so they conduct when the signal approaches zero. This improves the individual component amplifiers with smoother transistors transitions in “Class B”. The “Class A” element of a small signal, initiates both transistors, until a large signal is present, then return to the alternating transistors, commanding each half of the waveform.


Class B: Output transistors will only conduct during half (180 degrees) of the signal waveform. To amplify the complete signal, one transistor is used to conduct for positive output signal and the another for the negative output. Efficiency is improved over the “Class A” Amplifier, yet still retains high distortion due to a transition point where the two transistors are turned on to off.


Class C: Switching amplifiers, with transistors on for less than a half cycle and are required for short pulses, a trigger. “Class C” amplifiers are very efficient as the transistors are off most of the time and when on, they are in full conduction. They deliver high distortion for use in filtration, often in RF circuits, where tuning circuits can restore the original signal and reduce distortion.


Class D: Producing an output of a switching waveform, at high frequency, the low-pass filtered, average value of this waveform contours to the actual required audio waveform producing a highly efficient amplifier by capitalising on the component characteristics, such as the low resolve of the linear aspect of output transistors and ensuring switching is fully on or fully off, removing linear issues.


Class G: Similar in design to “Class AB” amplifiers with an improvement in the use of two or more supply voltages.
As a cascade of select voltages, low signal levels are comparable to the appropriate amplification voltage and proportionately increasing or decreasing as per the signal, maintaining optimum performance without inefficient loss of current, pronounced in other classes of amplifier.


Class H: Modulation of supply voltages to the output devices of the amplifier, maintains a supportive mimic relationship to the signal waveform, never exceeding the signal swing. By reducing the dissipation across the output devices, the amplifier operates as an optimised “Class AB” efficiency irrespective of the output level. The key defining aspect of this amplifier is the predictive nature of the supply voltage and the excessive components to predict this.



Amplifier Classes A
Class A: Simplest type of amplifier, whereby the output transistors conduct (without fully turning off) irrespective of the output waveform of the signal and is typically associated with high linearity and low efficiency.


Class AB: Combining “Class A” and “Class B” amplifiers, results in a more efficient amplifier, yet requires further improvement to lower distortion by biasing both transistors so they conduct when the signal approaches zero. This improves the individual component amplifiers with smoother transistors transitions in “Class B”. The “Class A” element of a small signal, initiates both transistors, until a large signal is present, then return to the alternating transistors, commanding each half of the waveform.


Class B: Output transistors will only conduct during half (180 degrees) of the signal waveform. To amplify the complete signal, one transistor is used to conduct for positive output signal and the another for the negative output. Efficiency is improved over the “Class A” Amplifier, yet still retains high distortion due to a transition point where the two transistors are turned on to off.


Class C: Switching amplifiers, with transistors on for less than a half cycle and are required for short pulses, a trigger. “Class C” amplifiers are very efficient as the transistors are off most of the time and when on, they are in full conduction. They deliver high distortion for use in filtration, often in RF circuits, where tuning circuits can restore the original signal and reduce distortion.


Class D: Producing an output of a switching waveform, at high frequency, the low-pass filtered, average value of this waveform contours to the actual required audio waveform producing a highly efficient amplifier by capitalising on the component characteristics, such as the low resolve of the linear aspect of output transistors and ensuring switching is fully on or fully off, removing linear issues.


Class G: Similar in design to “Class AB” amplifiers with an improvement in the use of two or more supply voltages.
As a cascade of select voltages, low signal levels are comparable to the appropriate amplification voltage and proportionately increasing or decreasing as per the signal, maintaining optimum performance without inefficient loss of current, pronounced in other classes of amplifier.


Class H: Modulation of supply voltages to the output devices of the amplifier, maintains a supportive mimic relationship to the signal waveform, never exceeding the signal swing. By reducing the dissipation across the output devices, the amplifier operates as an optimised “Class AB” efficiency irrespective of the output level. The key defining aspect of this amplifier is the predictive nature of the supply voltage and the excessive components to predict this.



Amplifier Classes A
Class A: Simplest type of amplifier, whereby the output transistors conduct (without fully turning off) irrespective of the output waveform of the signal and is typically associated with high linearity and low efficiency.


Class AB: Combining “Class A” and “Class B” amplifiers, results in a more efficient amplifier, yet requires further improvement to lower distortion by biasing both transistors so they conduct when the signal approaches zero. This improves the individual component amplifiers with smoother transistors transitions in “Class B”. The “Class A” element of a small signal, initiates both transistors, until a large signal is present, then return to the alternating transistors, commanding each half of the waveform.


Class B: Output transistors will only conduct during half (180 degrees) of the signal waveform. To amplify the complete signal, one transistor is used to conduct for positive output signal and the another for the negative output. Efficiency is improved over the “Class A” Amplifier, yet still retains high distortion due to a transition point where the two transistors are turned on to off.


Class C: Switching amplifiers, with transistors on for less than a half cycle and are required for short pulses, a trigger. “Class C” amplifiers are very efficient as the transistors are off most of the time and when on, they are in full conduction. They deliver high distortion for use in filtration, often in RF circuits, where tuning circuits can restore the original signal and reduce distortion.


Class D: Producing an output of a switching waveform, at high frequency, the low-pass filtered, average value of this waveform contours to the actual required audio waveform producing a highly efficient amplifier by capitalising on the component characteristics, such as the low resolve of the linear aspect of output transistors and ensuring switching is fully on or fully off, removing linear issues.


Class G: Similar in design to “Class AB” amplifiers with an improvement in the use of two or more supply voltages.
As a cascade of select voltages, low signal levels are comparable to the appropriate amplification voltage and proportionately increasing or decreasing as per the signal, maintaining optimum performance without inefficient loss of current, pronounced in other classes of amplifier.


Class H: Modulation of supply voltages to the output devices of the amplifier, maintains a supportive mimic relationship to the signal waveform, never exceeding the signal swing. By reducing the dissipation across the output devices, the amplifier operates as an optimised “Class AB” efficiency irrespective of the output level. The key defining aspect of this amplifier is the predictive nature of the supply voltage and the excessive components to predict this.



Amplitude Modulation A
Method of transmitting information via a radio carrier wave by the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave being varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Invented by Reginald Fessenden, 1900




Amplitude Modulation A
Method of transmitting information via a radio carrier wave by the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave being varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Invented by
Reginald Fessenden, 1900




Amplitude Modulation A
Method of transmitting information via a radio carrier wave by the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave being varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Invented by
Reginald Fessenden, 1900




Amplitude Modulation A
Method of transmitting information via a radio carrier wave by the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave being varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Invented by
Reginald Fessenden, 1900




Amplitude Modulation A
Method of transmitting information via a radio carrier wave by the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave being varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted.

Invented by
Reginald Fessenden, 1900




Analogue A
Refers to signals, circuits and systems that are natural and not digitally translated as in speech or the amplification of waveforms from past radio or television transmissions.



Analogue A
Refers to signals, circuits and systems that are natural and not digitally translated as in speech or the amplification of waveforms from past radio or television transmissions.



Analogue A
Refers to signals, circuits and systems that are natural and not digitally translated as in speech or the amplification of waveforms from past radio or television transmissions.



Analogue A
Refers to signals, circuits and systems that are natural and not digitally translated as in speech or the amplification of waveforms from past radio or television transmissions.



Analogue A
Refers to signals, circuits and systems that are natural and not digitally translated as in speech or the amplification of waveforms from past radio or television transmissions.



Analogue Front End A
Analogue portion of a circuit which precedes A/D conversion.



Analogue Front End A
Analogue portion of a circuit which precedes A/D conversion.



Analogue Front End A
Analogue portion of a circuit which precedes A/D conversion.



Analogue Front End A
Analogue portion of a circuit which precedes A/D conversion.



Analogue Front End A
Analogue portion of a circuit which precedes A/D conversion.



Angstrom A
1 Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm = 100pm



Angstrom A
1 Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm = 100pm



Angstrom A
1 Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm = 100pm



Angstrom A
1 Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm = 100pm



Angstrom A
1 Å = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm = 100pm



Annular Ring A
Conductive material surrounding a hole drilled in a printed circuit board, used for pads, vias and mounting holes.

Invented by Paul Eisler, 1943




Annular Ring A
Conductive material surrounding a hole drilled in a printed circuit board, used for pads, vias and mounting holes.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Annular Ring A
Conductive material surrounding a hole drilled in a printed circuit board, used for pads, vias and mounting holes.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Annular Ring A
Conductive material surrounding a hole drilled in a printed circuit board, used for pads, vias and mounting holes.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Annular Ring A
Conductive material surrounding a hole drilled in a printed circuit board, used for pads, vias and mounting holes.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




ANSI Code A
Microsoft Windows Characters that are native and non-Unicode. ANSI Windows code pages were based on drafts, intended for ANSI (American National Standards Institute), yet labelled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and denoted as “Windows-number”.



ANSI Code A
Microsoft Windows Characters that are native and non-Unicode. ANSI Windows code pages were based on drafts, intended for ANSI (American National Standards Institute), yet labelled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and denoted as “Windows-number”.



ANSI Code A
Microsoft Windows Characters that are native and non-Unicode. ANSI Windows code pages were based on drafts, intended for ANSI (American National Standards Institute), yet labelled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and denoted as “Windows-number”.



ANSI Code A
Microsoft Windows Characters that are native and non-Unicode. ANSI Windows code pages were based on drafts, intended for ANSI (American National Standards Institute), yet labelled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and denoted as “Windows-number”.



ANSI Code A
Microsoft Windows Characters that are native and non-Unicode. ANSI Windows code pages were based on drafts, intended for ANSI (American National Standards Institute), yet labelled by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and denoted as “Windows-number”.



Anti-aliasing A
A/D conversion, uses a low-pass filter to remove signal components above the Nyquist frequency by anti-aliasing (eliminating) the sampled replicas (aliases) in the baseband.



Anti-aliasing A
A/D conversion, uses a low-pass filter to remove signal components above the Nyquist frequency by anti-aliasing (eliminating) the sampled replicas (aliases) in the baseband.



Anti-aliasing A
A/D conversion, uses a low-pass filter to remove signal components above the Nyquist frequency by anti-aliasing (eliminating) the sampled replicas (aliases) in the baseband.



Anti-aliasing A
A/D conversion, uses a low-pass filter to remove signal components above the Nyquist frequency by anti-aliasing (eliminating) the sampled replicas (aliases) in the baseband.



Anti-aliasing A
A/D conversion, uses a low-pass filter to remove signal components above the Nyquist frequency by anti-aliasing (eliminating) the sampled replicas (aliases) in the baseband.



Apparent Power A
Product of voltage times current in a circuit containing reactances and measured in volt-amps (VA). Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both active and reactive power will flow to real loads. Apparent power is the magnitude of the vector sum of active and reactive power, which is the product of the root-mean-square of voltage and current.

Discovered by Paul Boucherot, 1820




Apparent Power A
Product of voltage times current in a circuit containing reactances and measured in volt-amps (VA). Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both active and reactive power will flow to real loads. Apparent power is the magnitude of the vector sum of active and reactive power, which is the product of the root-mean-square of voltage and current.

Discovered by
Paul Boucherot, 1820




Apparent Power A
Product of voltage times current in a circuit containing reactances and measured in volt-amps (VA). Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both active and reactive power will flow to real loads. Apparent power is the magnitude of the vector sum of active and reactive power, which is the product of the root-mean-square of voltage and current.

Discovered by
Paul Boucherot, 1820




Apparent Power A
Product of voltage times current in a circuit containing reactances and measured in volt-amps (VA). Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both active and reactive power will flow to real loads. Apparent power is the magnitude of the vector sum of active and reactive power, which is the product of the root-mean-square of voltage and current.

Discovered by
Paul Boucherot, 1820




Apparent Power A
Product of voltage times current in a circuit containing reactances and measured in volt-amps (VA). Practical loads have resistance, inductance, and capacitance, so both active and reactive power will flow to real loads. Apparent power is the magnitude of the vector sum of active and reactive power, which is the product of the root-mean-square of voltage and current.

Discovered by
Paul Boucherot, 1820




ASCII Code A
American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. Principally developed as a telegraph code, a commercial seven-bit teleprinter code, then remodelled as the ASCII standard in 1960, with the American Standards Association, which is now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. First edition published in 1963, with major revisions during 1967, and maintains the latest revision from 1986.


Originally based on English, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart with ninety-five (printable) encoded characters: digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols, and 33 non-printing control codes.



ASCII Code A
American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. Principally developed as a telegraph code, a commercial seven-bit teleprinter code, then remodelled as the ASCII standard in 1960, with the American Standards Association, which is now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. First edition published in 1963, with major revisions during 1967, and maintains the latest revision from 1986.


Originally based on English, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart with ninety-five (printable) encoded characters: digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols, and 33 non-printing control codes.



ASCII Code A
American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. Principally developed as a telegraph code, a commercial seven-bit teleprinter code, then remodelled as the ASCII standard in 1960, with the American Standards Association, which is now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. First edition published in 1963, with major revisions during 1967, and maintains the latest revision from 1986.


Originally based on English, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart with ninety-five (printable) encoded characters: digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols, and 33 non-printing control codes.



ASCII Code A
American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. Principally developed as a telegraph code, a commercial seven-bit teleprinter code, then remodelled as the ASCII standard in 1960, with the American Standards Association, which is now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. First edition published in 1963, with major revisions during 1967, and maintains the latest revision from 1986.


Originally based on English, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart with ninety-five (printable) encoded characters: digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols, and 33 non-printing control codes.



ASCII Code A
American Standard Codes for Information Interchange. Principally developed as a telegraph code, a commercial seven-bit teleprinter code, then remodelled as the ASCII standard in 1960, with the American Standards Association, which is now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.2 subcommittee. First edition published in 1963, with major revisions during 1967, and maintains the latest revision from 1986.


Originally based on English, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart with ninety-five (printable) encoded characters: digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols, and 33 non-printing control codes.



Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A
When enabling internet over existing telephone lines, an ADSL modem with a filter will split frequencies to allows for a single telephone to be used for an internet connection and voice calls, at the same time. The bandwidth of a telephone line is divided into 26.075 kHz to 137.825 kHz for upstream communication and 138 kHz to 1,104 kHz, for downstream communications of ADSL and ADSL 2. The current ADSL 2+ connection has an extended bandwidth of 138 kHz to 2,208 kHz.


ADSL: ITU G.992.1 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.0 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 8.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2: ITU G.992.3 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.3 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 12.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2+: ITU G.992.5 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.4 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 24.0 Mbits/s.



Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A
When enabling internet over existing telephone lines, an ADSL modem with a filter will split frequencies to allows for a single telephone to be used for an internet connection and voice calls, at the same time. The bandwidth of a telephone line is divided into 26.075 kHz to 137.825 kHz for upstream communication and 138 kHz to 1,104 kHz, for downstream communications of ADSL and ADSL 2. The current ADSL 2+ connection has an extended bandwidth of 138 kHz to 2,208 kHz.


ADSL: ITU G.992.1 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.0 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 8.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2: ITU G.992.3 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.3 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 12.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2+: ITU G.992.5 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.4 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 24.0 Mbits/s.



Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A
When enabling internet over existing telephone lines, an ADSL modem with a filter will split frequencies to allows for a single telephone to be used for an internet connection and voice calls, at the same time. The bandwidth of a telephone line is divided into 26.075 kHz to 137.825 kHz for upstream communication and 138 kHz to 1,104 kHz, for downstream communications of ADSL and ADSL 2. The current ADSL 2+ connection has an extended bandwidth of 138 kHz to 2,208 kHz.


ADSL: ITU G.992.1 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.0 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 8.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2: ITU G.992.3 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.3 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 12.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2+: ITU G.992.5 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.4 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 24.0 Mbits/s.



Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A
When enabling internet over existing telephone lines, an ADSL modem with a filter will split frequencies to allows for a single telephone to be used for an internet connection and voice calls, at the same time. The bandwidth of a telephone line is divided into 26.075 kHz to 137.825 kHz for upstream communication and 138 kHz to 1,104 kHz, for downstream communications of ADSL and ADSL 2. The current ADSL 2+ connection has an extended bandwidth of 138 kHz to 2,208 kHz.


ADSL: ITU G.992.1 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.0 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 8.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2: ITU G.992.3 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.3 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 12.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2+: ITU G.992.5 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.4 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 24.0 Mbits/s.



Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A
When enabling internet over existing telephone lines, an ADSL modem with a filter will split frequencies to allows for a single telephone to be used for an internet connection and voice calls, at the same time. The bandwidth of a telephone line is divided into 26.075 kHz to 137.825 kHz for upstream communication and 138 kHz to 1,104 kHz, for downstream communications of ADSL and ADSL 2. The current ADSL 2+ connection has an extended bandwidth of 138 kHz to 2,208 kHz.


ADSL: ITU G.992.1 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.0 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 8.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2: ITU G.992.3 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.3 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 12.0 Mbits/s.


ADSL 2+: ITU G.992.5 standard for Broadband Internet with an Upstream Rate of 1.4 Mbits/s and Downstream Rate of up to 24.0 Mbits/s.



Asynchronous Transfer Mode Management A
Standard for the carriage of a complete range of voice, data, and video signals” and was developed to unify telecommunication and computer networks and to handle high-throughput data traffic and real-time, voice and video.


The reference model maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO-OSI reference model: network layer, data link layer, and physical layer and is the core protocol used for public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but will be replaced in favour of all IP.


ATM uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and encodes data into small, “fixed”-sized packets (ISO-OSI frames) called cells, whereas the Internet Protocol (Ethernet) uses “variable”-sized packets and frames.



Asynchronous Transfer Mode Management A
Standard for the carriage of a complete range of voice, data, and video signals” and was developed to unify telecommunication and computer networks and to handle high-throughput data traffic and real-time, voice and video.


The reference model maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO-OSI reference model: network layer, data link layer, and physical layer and is the core protocol used for public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but will be replaced in favour of all IP.


ATM uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and encodes data into small, “fixed”-sized packets (ISO-OSI frames) called cells, whereas the Internet Protocol (Ethernet) uses “variable”-sized packets and frames.



Asynchronous Transfer Mode Management A
Standard for the carriage of a complete range of voice, data, and video signals” and was developed to unify telecommunication and computer networks and to handle high-throughput data traffic and real-time, voice and video.


The reference model maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO-OSI reference model: network layer, data link layer, and physical layer and is the core protocol used for public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but will be replaced in favour of all IP.


ATM uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and encodes data into small, “fixed”-sized packets (ISO-OSI frames) called cells, whereas the Internet Protocol (Ethernet) uses “variable”-sized packets and frames.



Asynchronous Transfer Mode Management A
Standard for the carriage of a complete range of voice, data, and video signals” and was developed to unify telecommunication and computer networks and to handle high-throughput data traffic and real-time, voice and video.


The reference model maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO-OSI reference model: network layer, data link layer, and physical layer and is the core protocol used for public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but will be replaced in favour of all IP.


ATM uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and encodes data into small, “fixed”-sized packets (ISO-OSI frames) called cells, whereas the Internet Protocol (Ethernet) uses “variable”-sized packets and frames.



Asynchronous Transfer Mode Management A
Standard for the carriage of a complete range of voice, data, and video signals” and was developed to unify telecommunication and computer networks and to handle high-throughput data traffic and real-time, voice and video.


The reference model maps to the three lowest layers of the ISO-OSI reference model: network layer, data link layer, and physical layer and is the core protocol used for public switched telephone network (PSTN) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), but will be replaced in favour of all IP.


ATM uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing, and encodes data into small, “fixed”-sized packets (ISO-OSI frames) called cells, whereas the Internet Protocol (Ethernet) uses “variable”-sized packets and frames.



Automatic Gain Control A
Circuit that modulates an amplifier’s gain, in response to the relative strength of the input signal, in order to maintain the output power.



Automatic Gain Control A
Circuit that modulates an amplifier’s gain, in response to the relative strength of the input signal, in order to maintain the output power.



Automatic Gain Control A
Circuit that modulates an amplifier’s gain, in response to the relative strength of the input signal, in order to maintain the output power.



Automatic Gain Control A
Circuit that modulates an amplifier’s gain, in response to the relative strength of the input signal, in order to maintain the output power.



Automatic Gain Control A
Circuit that modulates an amplifier’s gain, in response to the relative strength of the input signal, in order to maintain the output power.



Automatic Power Control Institute A
Pre-amplification of output waveforms in power and audio systems are monitored to identify overmodulation and to reduce the amplification of that signal to a previously sampled approximation to maintain a constant output.



Automatic Power Control Institute A
Pre-amplification of output waveforms in power and audio systems are monitored to identify overmodulation and to reduce the amplification of that signal to a previously sampled approximation to maintain a constant output.



Automatic Power Control Institute A
Pre-amplification of output waveforms in power and audio systems are monitored to identify overmodulation and to reduce the amplification of that signal to a previously sampled approximation to maintain a constant output.



Automatic Power Control Institute A
Pre-amplification of output waveforms in power and audio systems are monitored to identify overmodulation and to reduce the amplification of that signal to a previously sampled approximation to maintain a constant output.



Automatic Power Control Institute A
Pre-amplification of output waveforms in power and audio systems are monitored to identify overmodulation and to reduce the amplification of that signal to a previously sampled approximation to maintain a constant output.



Avalanche Photo Diode A
Designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrents to provide gain. As reverse-bias voltage approaches the break-down voltage, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons, acquiring sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions, effectively amplifying the signal.



Avalanche Photo Diode A
Designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrents to provide gain. As reverse-bias voltage approaches the break-down voltage, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons, acquiring sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions, effectively amplifying the signal.



Avalanche Photo Diode A
Designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrents to provide gain. As reverse-bias voltage approaches the break-down voltage, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons, acquiring sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions, effectively amplifying the signal.



Avalanche Photo Diode A
Designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrents to provide gain. As reverse-bias voltage approaches the break-down voltage, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons, acquiring sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions, effectively amplifying the signal.



Avalanche Photo Diode A
Designed to take advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrents to provide gain. As reverse-bias voltage approaches the break-down voltage, hole-electron pairs are created by absorbed photons, acquiring sufficient energy to create additional hole-electron pairs when they collide with ions, effectively amplifying the signal.



B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
B
B Field B
B, is the symbol for magnetic flux density (magnetic field), as in “B-field” is defined by the direction and magnitude (strength), and is represented as a vector field.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



B Field B
B, is the symbol for magnetic flux density (magnetic field), as in “B-field” is defined by the direction and magnitude (strength), and is represented as a vector field.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



B Field B
B, is the symbol for magnetic flux density (magnetic field), as in “B-field” is defined by the direction and magnitude (strength), and is represented as a vector field.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



B Field B
B, is the symbol for magnetic flux density (magnetic field), as in “B-field” is defined by the direction and magnitude (strength), and is represented as a vector field.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



B Field B
B, is the symbol for magnetic flux density (magnetic field), as in “B-field” is defined by the direction and magnitude (strength), and is represented as a vector field.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Bandwidth B
Continuous set of peak frequencies that range between upper and lower frequencies, measured in hertz, and may be referred to as the passband bandwidth: differential between the peak upper and lower frequencies of a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. A low-pass filter or baseband signal is where the bandwidth is equal to its highest upper frequency.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Bandwidth B
Continuous set of peak frequencies that range between upper and lower frequencies, measured in hertz, and may be referred to as the passband bandwidth: differential between the peak upper and lower frequencies of a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. A low-pass filter or baseband signal is where the bandwidth is equal to its highest upper frequency.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Bandwidth B
Continuous set of peak frequencies that range between upper and lower frequencies, measured in hertz, and may be referred to as the passband bandwidth: differential between the peak upper and lower frequencies of a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. A low-pass filter or baseband signal is where the bandwidth is equal to its highest upper frequency.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Bandwidth B
Continuous set of peak frequencies that range between upper and lower frequencies, measured in hertz, and may be referred to as the passband bandwidth: differential between the peak upper and lower frequencies of a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. A low-pass filter or baseband signal is where the bandwidth is equal to its highest upper frequency.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Bandwidth B
Continuous set of peak frequencies that range between upper and lower frequencies, measured in hertz, and may be referred to as the passband bandwidth: differential between the peak upper and lower frequencies of a band-pass filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum. A low-pass filter or baseband signal is where the bandwidth is equal to its highest upper frequency.


There are two distinct fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (A⋅m−1) and B (SI Measure) in teslas (T) and newtons per meter per ampere (N⋅m−1⋅A−1) and is commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges.



Battery Backup B
Microprocessors supervisory circuits maintain power to safeguard volatile memory and when switching between power supplies, dependence on a fully charged backup battery can be the only solution to storing operational variables and constants that would otherwise be lost. When problems occur, it is generally a result of component failure due to age or transient events that also effect backup batteries. Always replace batteries before retrieving data.



Battery Backup B
Microprocessors supervisory circuits maintain power to safeguard volatile memory and when switching between power supplies, dependence on a fully charged backup battery can be the only solution to storing operational variables and constants that would otherwise be lost. When problems occur, it is generally a result of component failure due to age or transient events that also effect backup batteries. Always replace batteries before retrieving data.



Battery Backup B
Microprocessors supervisory circuits maintain power to safeguard volatile memory and when switching between power supplies, dependence on a fully charged backup battery can be the only solution to storing operational variables and constants that would otherwise be lost. When problems occur, it is generally a result of component failure due to age or transient events that also effect backup batteries. Always replace batteries before retrieving data.



Battery Backup B
Microprocessors supervisory circuits maintain power to safeguard volatile memory and when switching between power supplies, dependence on a fully charged backup battery can be the only solution to storing operational variables and constants that would otherwise be lost. When problems occur, it is generally a result of component failure due to age or transient events that also effect backup batteries. Always replace batteries before retrieving data.



Battery Backup B
Microprocessors supervisory circuits maintain power to safeguard volatile memory and when switching between power supplies, dependence on a fully charged backup battery can be the only solution to storing operational variables and constants that would otherwise be lost. When problems occur, it is generally a result of component failure due to age or transient events that also effect backup batteries. Always replace batteries before retrieving data.



Battery Seal B
Modern microprocessors are equipped with battery implementation systems within supervisory circuits that disconnects a backup battery from any down-stream circuitry until power is applied the first time, preserving battery life.



Battery Seal B
Modern microprocessors are equipped with battery implementation systems within supervisory circuits that disconnects a backup battery from any down-stream circuitry until power is applied the first time, preserving battery life.



Battery Seal B
Modern microprocessors are equipped with battery implementation systems within supervisory circuits that disconnects a backup battery from any down-stream circuitry until power is applied the first time, preserving battery life.



Battery Seal B
Modern microprocessors are equipped with battery implementation systems within supervisory circuits that disconnects a backup battery from any down-stream circuitry until power is applied the first time, preserving battery life.



Battery Seal B
Modern microprocessors are equipped with battery implementation systems within supervisory circuits that disconnects a backup battery from any down-stream circuitry until power is applied the first time, preserving battery life.



Becquerel B
Becquerel, Bq

SI Derived Unit

Activity re Radionuclide

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second and is equivalent to an inverse second, s−1.

Named after Antoine Henri Becquerel




Becquerel B
Becquerel, Bq

SI Derived Unit

Activity re Radionuclide

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second and is equivalent to an inverse second, s−1.

Named after
Antoine Henri Becquerel




Becquerel B
Becquerel, Bq

SI Derived Unit

Activity re Radionuclide

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second and is equivalent to an inverse second, s−1.

Named after
Antoine Henri Becquerel




Becquerel B
Becquerel, Bq

SI Derived Unit

Activity re Radionuclide

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second and is equivalent to an inverse second, s−1.

Named after
Antoine Henri Becquerel




Becquerel B
Becquerel, Bq

SI Derived Unit

Activity re Radionuclide

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second and is equivalent to an inverse second, s−1.

Named after
Antoine Henri Becquerel




Bias B
Method of fixing voltage or current at particular points throughout an electronic circuit, providing known operating conditions within electronic components.



Bias B
Method of fixing voltage or current at particular points throughout an electronic circuit, providing known operating conditions within electronic components.



Bias B
Method of fixing voltage or current at particular points throughout an electronic circuit, providing known operating conditions within electronic components.



Bias B
Method of fixing voltage or current at particular points throughout an electronic circuit, providing known operating conditions within electronic components.



Bias B
Method of fixing voltage or current at particular points throughout an electronic circuit, providing known operating conditions within electronic components.



Binary B
Numbers expressed as a base-2 numeral system of two different symbols, 0 and 1. In digital electronic circuitry, the state of a switch may be on or off and translates perfectly for logical gates and computer-based devices.

Discovered by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary B
Numbers expressed as a base-2 numeral system of two different symbols, 0 and 1. In digital electronic circuitry, the state of a switch may be on or off and translates perfectly for logical gates and computer-based devices.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary B
Numbers expressed as a base-2 numeral system of two different symbols, 0 and 1. In digital electronic circuitry, the state of a switch may be on or off and translates perfectly for logical gates and computer-based devices.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary B
Numbers expressed as a base-2 numeral system of two different symbols, 0 and 1. In digital electronic circuitry, the state of a switch may be on or off and translates perfectly for logical gates and computer-based devices.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary B
Numbers expressed as a base-2 numeral system of two different symbols, 0 and 1. In digital electronic circuitry, the state of a switch may be on or off and translates perfectly for logical gates and computer-based devices.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary Coded Decimal B
Binary representation of a decimal number. Each decimal digit (0-9) is encoded in binary using four bits per decimal digit. This BCD value of 0101 1000 is 58 in decimal.

Discovered by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary Coded Decimal B
Binary representation of a decimal number. Each decimal digit (0-9) is encoded in binary using four bits per decimal digit. This BCD value of 0101 1000 is 58 in decimal.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary Coded Decimal B
Binary representation of a decimal number. Each decimal digit (0-9) is encoded in binary using four bits per decimal digit. This BCD value of 0101 1000 is 58 in decimal.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary Coded Decimal B
Binary representation of a decimal number. Each decimal digit (0-9) is encoded in binary using four bits per decimal digit. This BCD value of 0101 1000 is 58 in decimal.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Binary Coded Decimal B
Binary representation of a decimal number. Each decimal digit (0-9) is encoded in binary using four bits per decimal digit. This BCD value of 0101 1000 is 58 in decimal.

Discovered by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 1701




Bipolar B
Components, circuits and devices, capable of using two polarizations, such as a transistor with positive and negative charge carriers or waveforms that oscillate between two polarities.



Bipolar B
Components, circuits and devices, capable of using two polarizations, such as a transistor with positive and negative charge carriers or waveforms that oscillate between two polarities.



Bipolar B
Components, circuits and devices, capable of using two polarizations, such as a transistor with positive and negative charge carriers or waveforms that oscillate between two polarities.



Bipolar B
Components, circuits and devices, capable of using two polarizations, such as a transistor with positive and negative charge carriers or waveforms that oscillate between two polarities.



Bipolar B
Components, circuits and devices, capable of using two polarizations, such as a transistor with positive and negative charge carriers or waveforms that oscillate between two polarities.



Bit B
The symbol b, represents for the binary digits of 0 or 1, is the basic units of information in computing and digital communications. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values, true/false, yes/no, on/off or any other two-valued attribute.

Invented by John Wilder Tukey, 1948




Bit B
The symbol b, represents for the binary digits of 0 or 1, is the basic units of information in computing and digital communications. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values, true/false, yes/no, on/off or any other two-valued attribute.

Invented by
John Wilder Tukey, 1948




Bit B
The symbol b, represents for the binary digits of 0 or 1, is the basic units of information in computing and digital communications. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values, true/false, yes/no, on/off or any other two-valued attribute.

Invented by
John Wilder Tukey, 1948




Bit B
The symbol b, represents for the binary digits of 0 or 1, is the basic units of information in computing and digital communications. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values, true/false, yes/no, on/off or any other two-valued attribute.

Invented by
John Wilder Tukey, 1948




Bit B
The symbol b, represents for the binary digits of 0 or 1, is the basic units of information in computing and digital communications. These two values can also be interpreted as logical values, true/false, yes/no, on/off or any other two-valued attribute.

Invented by
John Wilder Tukey, 1948




Bit Error Rate B
Errors occur within data streams, generally as a result of interference or noise within the digital transmission. Expressed as a percentage or a ratio, the number of bit errors divided by the number of bits transferred during a specific time interval, is the measure of the bit error rate.



Bit Error Rate B
Errors occur within data streams, generally as a result of interference or noise within the digital transmission. Expressed as a percentage or a ratio, the number of bit errors divided by the number of bits transferred during a specific time interval, is the measure of the bit error rate.



Bit Error Rate B
Errors occur within data streams, generally as a result of interference or noise within the digital transmission. Expressed as a percentage or a ratio, the number of bit errors divided by the number of bits transferred during a specific time interval, is the measure of the bit error rate.



Bit Error Rate B
Errors occur within data streams, generally as a result of interference or noise within the digital transmission. Expressed as a percentage or a ratio, the number of bit errors divided by the number of bits transferred during a specific time interval, is the measure of the bit error rate.



Bit Error Rate B
Errors occur within data streams, generally as a result of interference or noise within the digital transmission. Expressed as a percentage or a ratio, the number of bit errors divided by the number of bits transferred during a specific time interval, is the measure of the bit error rate.



Bit Oriented Code B
Data that is analysed by a communications protocol that sees the transmitted data as an opaque stream of bits with no meaning and control codes are defined in terms of bit sequences instead of characters.


The Bit Oriented Protocol transfers data frames regardless of frame contents, allowing data frames with an arbitrary number of bits and allows for character codes with an arbitrary number of bits per character.



Bit Oriented Code B
Data that is analysed by a communications protocol that sees the transmitted data as an opaque stream of bits with no meaning and control codes are defined in terms of bit sequences instead of characters.


The Bit Oriented Protocol transfers data frames regardless of frame contents, allowing data frames with an arbitrary number of bits and allows for character codes with an arbitrary number of bits per character.



Bit Oriented Code B
Data that is analysed by a communications protocol that sees the transmitted data as an opaque stream of bits with no meaning and control codes are defined in terms of bit sequences instead of characters.


The Bit Oriented Protocol transfers data frames regardless of frame contents, allowing data frames with an arbitrary number of bits and allows for character codes with an arbitrary number of bits per character.



Bit Oriented Code B
Data that is analysed by a communications protocol that sees the transmitted data as an opaque stream of bits with no meaning and control codes are defined in terms of bit sequences instead of characters.


The Bit Oriented Protocol transfers data frames regardless of frame contents, allowing data frames with an arbitrary number of bits and allows for character codes with an arbitrary number of bits per character.



Bit Oriented Code B
Data that is analysed by a communications protocol that sees the transmitted data as an opaque stream of bits with no meaning and control codes are defined in terms of bit sequences instead of characters.


The Bit Oriented Protocol transfers data frames regardless of frame contents, allowing data frames with an arbitrary number of bits and allows for character codes with an arbitrary number of bits per character.



Blade Server B
Server chassis that holds a multitude of modular motherboards of which each, dedicated blade server is built with a standard footprint, optimised for applications, network activity, power consumption and temperature. These computer systems share a back plane to address maximum use of space for large-scale computing centres.



Blade Server B
Server chassis that holds a multitude of modular motherboards of which each, dedicated blade server is built with a standard footprint, optimised for applications, network activity, power consumption and temperature. These computer systems share a back plane to address maximum use of space for large-scale computing centres.



Blade Server B
Server chassis that holds a multitude of modular motherboards of which each, dedicated blade server is built with a standard footprint, optimised for applications, network activity, power consumption and temperature. These computer systems share a back plane to address maximum use of space for large-scale computing centres.



Blade Server B
Server chassis that holds a multitude of modular motherboards of which each, dedicated blade server is built with a standard footprint, optimised for applications, network activity, power consumption and temperature. These computer systems share a back plane to address maximum use of space for large-scale computing centres.



Blade Server B
Server chassis that holds a multitude of modular motherboards of which each, dedicated blade server is built with a standard footprint, optimised for applications, network activity, power consumption and temperature. These computer systems share a back plane to address maximum use of space for large-scale computing centres.



BlueTooth B
Wireless devices capable of short range voice and data connections allow for mobile and stationary devices to communicate, via a profile, that the device must interpret settings to control communications from the start and with no line or device negotiation involved, communications become effective immediately.


Comparison of Bluetooth Adapters starting with V1.0 & V1.1 with a data rate of 768 Kbit/s, V1.2 at 1Mbit/s, V2.0 at 3 Mbit/s, V3.0, V4.0, V4.1 at 24 Mbit/s and V4.2 at 60Mbits/s.



BlueTooth B
Wireless devices capable of short range voice and data connections allow for mobile and stationary devices to communicate, via a profile, that the device must interpret settings to control communications from the start and with no line or device negotiation involved, communications become effective immediately.


Comparison of Bluetooth Adapters starting with V1.0 & V1.1 with a data rate of 768 Kbit/s, V1.2 at 1Mbit/s, V2.0 at 3 Mbit/s, V3.0, V4.0, V4.1 at 24 Mbit/s and V4.2 at 60Mbits/s.



BlueTooth B
Wireless devices capable of short range voice and data connections allow for mobile and stationary devices to communicate, via a profile, that the device must interpret settings to control communications from the start and with no line or device negotiation involved, communications become effective immediately.


Comparison of Bluetooth Adapters starting with V1.0 & V1.1 with a data rate of 768 Kbit/s, V1.2 at 1Mbit/s, V2.0 at 3 Mbit/s, V3.0, V4.0, V4.1 at 24 Mbit/s and V4.2 at 60Mbits/s.



BlueTooth B
Wireless devices capable of short range voice and data connections allow for mobile and stationary devices to communicate, via a profile, that the device must interpret settings to control communications from the start and with no line or device negotiation involved, communications become effective immediately.


Comparison of Bluetooth Adapters starting with V1.0 & V1.1 with a data rate of 768 Kbit/s, V1.2 at 1Mbit/s, V2.0 at 3 Mbit/s, V3.0, V4.0, V4.1 at 24 Mbit/s and V4.2 at 60Mbits/s.



BlueTooth B
Wireless devices capable of short range voice and data connections allow for mobile and stationary devices to communicate, via a profile, that the device must interpret settings to control communications from the start and with no line or device negotiation involved, communications become effective immediately.


Comparison of Bluetooth Adapters starting with V1.0 & V1.1 with a data rate of 768 Kbit/s, V1.2 at 1Mbit/s, V2.0 at 3 Mbit/s, V3.0, V4.0, V4.1 at 24 Mbit/s and V4.2 at 60Mbits/s.



Boolean B
Systems of logical thought benefit from a Boolean search of an “and” operator between two words such as, “apple” AND “orange”, resulting in searching for documents containing both words, not just one. With an “or” operator, “apple” OR “orange”) will result in documents containing either word. Logic, used to describe memory locations or states of a circuit that are charged (1) or not charged (0) and can use an AND gate or an OR gate.


TRUTH TABLE


(0) AND (0) = (0) OR (0) = (1) AND (0) = 0
(0) OR (1) = (1) AND (1) = (1) OR (1) = 1

Invented by George Boole, 1948




Boolean B
Systems of logical thought benefit from a Boolean search of an “and” operator between two words such as, “apple” AND “orange”, resulting in searching for documents containing both words, not just one. With an “or” operator, “apple” OR “orange”) will result in documents containing either word. Logic, used to describe memory locations or states of a circuit that are charged (1) or not charged (0) and can use an AND gate or an OR gate.


TRUTH TABLE


(0) AND (0) = (0) OR (0) = (1) AND (0) = 0
(0) OR (1) = (1) AND (1) = (1) OR (1) = 1

Invented by
George Boole, 1948




Boolean B
Systems of logical thought benefit from a Boolean search of an “and” operator between two words such as, “apple” AND “orange”, resulting in searching for documents containing both words, not just one. With an “or” operator, “apple” OR “orange”) will result in documents containing either word. Logic, used to describe memory locations or states of a circuit that are charged (1) or not charged (0) and can use an AND gate or an OR gate.


TRUTH TABLE


(0) AND (0) = (0) OR (0) = (1) AND (0) = 0
(0) OR (1) = (1) AND (1) = (1) OR (1) = 1

Invented by
George Boole, 1948




Boolean B
Systems of logical thought benefit from a Boolean search of an “and” operator between two words such as, “apple” AND “orange”, resulting in searching for documents containing both words, not just one. With an “or” operator, “apple” OR “orange”) will result in documents containing either word. Logic, used to describe memory locations or states of a circuit that are charged (1) or not charged (0) and can use an AND gate or an OR gate.


TRUTH TABLE


(0) AND (0) = (0) OR (0) = (1) AND (0) = 0
(0) OR (1) = (1) AND (1) = (1) OR (1) = 1

Invented by
George Boole, 1948




Boolean B
Systems of logical thought benefit from a Boolean search of an “and” operator between two words such as, “apple” AND “orange”, resulting in searching for documents containing both words, not just one. With an “or” operator, “apple” OR “orange”) will result in documents containing either word. Logic, used to describe memory locations or states of a circuit that are charged (1) or not charged (0) and can use an AND gate or an OR gate.


TRUTH TABLE


(0) AND (0) = (0) OR (0) = (1) AND (0) = 0
(0) OR (1) = (1) AND (1) = (1) OR (1) = 1

Invented by
George Boole, 1948




Bootstrap B
Output of a step-up converter to drive a main power FET switch, providing more gate drive than the input can supply alone. It is also a circuit whereby part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier.



Bootstrap B
Output of a step-up converter to drive a main power FET switch, providing more gate drive than the input can supply alone. It is also a circuit whereby part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier.



Bootstrap B
Output of a step-up converter to drive a main power FET switch, providing more gate drive than the input can supply alone. It is also a circuit whereby part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier.



Bootstrap B
Output of a step-up converter to drive a main power FET switch, providing more gate drive than the input can supply alone. It is also a circuit whereby part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier.



Bootstrap B
Output of a step-up converter to drive a main power FET switch, providing more gate drive than the input can supply alone. It is also a circuit whereby part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier.



Break-Before-Make B
Design of switches and relays that are required to break (open) one set of contacts before engaging (closing) another set, ensuring isolation of both signal paths.



Break-Before-Make B
Design of switches and relays that are required to break (open) one set of contacts before engaging (closing) another set, ensuring isolation of both signal paths.



Break-Before-Make B
Design of switches and relays that are required to break (open) one set of contacts before engaging (closing) another set, ensuring isolation of both signal paths.



Break-Before-Make B
Design of switches and relays that are required to break (open) one set of contacts before engaging (closing) another set, ensuring isolation of both signal paths.



Break-Before-Make B
Design of switches and relays that are required to break (open) one set of contacts before engaging (closing) another set, ensuring isolation of both signal paths.



Broadband B
Bandwidth that can carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously and distributed to household via coaxial, optical fibre, radio or twisted pair. Internet access, telephone and a multitude of CATV channels are predominantly on one coaxial cable. Made possible by frequency-division, each channel is modulated to a different frequency band and combined in the transmission medium. Then at the receiving end, it is demodulated to its original frequency and separated by guard-bands, which are empty spaces to ensure that each channel will not interfere with its neighbours.
DOCSIS 1.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 2.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.0 has 152 Mbits/s Down and 108 Mbits/s Up
12.38 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.1 has 1,000 Mbits/s Down and 500 Mbits/s Up
81.43 Percent
|




Broadband B
Bandwidth that can carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously and distributed to household via coaxial, optical fibre, radio or twisted pair. Internet access, telephone and a multitude of CATV channels are predominantly on one coaxial cable. Made possible by frequency-division, each channel is modulated to a different frequency band and combined in the transmission medium. Then at the receiving end, it is demodulated to its original frequency and separated by guard-bands, which are empty spaces to ensure that each channel will not interfere with its neighbours.
DOCSIS 1.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 2.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.0 has 152 Mbits/s Down and 108 Mbits/s Up
12.38 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.1 has 1,000 Mbits/s Down and 500 Mbits/s Up
81.43 Percent
|




Broadband B
Bandwidth that can carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously and distributed to household via coaxial, optical fibre, radio or twisted pair. Internet access, telephone and a multitude of CATV channels are predominantly on one coaxial cable. Made possible by frequency-division, each channel is modulated to a different frequency band and combined in the transmission medium. Then at the receiving end, it is demodulated to its original frequency and separated by guard-bands, which are empty spaces to ensure that each channel will not interfere with its neighbours.
DOCSIS 1.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 2.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.0 has 152 Mbits/s Down and 108 Mbits/s Up
12.38 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.1 has 1,000 Mbits/s Down and 500 Mbits/s Up
81.43 Percent
|




Broadband B
Bandwidth that can carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously and distributed to household via coaxial, optical fibre, radio or twisted pair. Internet access, telephone and a multitude of CATV channels are predominantly on one coaxial cable. Made possible by frequency-division, each channel is modulated to a different frequency band and combined in the transmission medium. Then at the receiving end, it is demodulated to its original frequency and separated by guard-bands, which are empty spaces to ensure that each channel will not interfere with its neighbours.
DOCSIS 1.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 2.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.0 has 152 Mbits/s Down and 108 Mbits/s Up
12.38 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.1 has 1,000 Mbits/s Down and 500 Mbits/s Up
81.43 Percent
|




Broadband B
Bandwidth that can carry multiple voice, video, or data channels simultaneously and distributed to household via coaxial, optical fibre, radio or twisted pair. Internet access, telephone and a multitude of CATV channels are predominantly on one coaxial cable. Made possible by frequency-division, each channel is modulated to a different frequency band and combined in the transmission medium. Then at the receiving end, it is demodulated to its original frequency and separated by guard-bands, which are empty spaces to ensure that each channel will not interfere with its neighbours.
DOCSIS 1.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 2.0 has 38 Mbits/s Down and 9 Mbits/s Up
3.09 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.0 has 152 Mbits/s Down and 108 Mbits/s Up
12.38 Percent
|

DOCSIS 3.1 has 1,000 Mbits/s Down and 500 Mbits/s Up
81.43 Percent
|




Brownout B
Condition whereby a voltage drop falls below the nominal operating range, but remains above 0V. In an electrical power supply system, this condition may be enacted to reduce load in an emergency and prevent a power outage, known as a blackout.



Brownout B
Condition whereby a voltage drop falls below the nominal operating range, but remains above 0V. In an electrical power supply system, this condition may be enacted to reduce load in an emergency and prevent a power outage, known as a blackout.



Brownout B
Condition whereby a voltage drop falls below the nominal operating range, but remains above 0V. In an electrical power supply system, this condition may be enacted to reduce load in an emergency and prevent a power outage, known as a blackout.



Brownout B
Condition whereby a voltage drop falls below the nominal operating range, but remains above 0V. In an electrical power supply system, this condition may be enacted to reduce load in an emergency and prevent a power outage, known as a blackout.



Brownout B
Condition whereby a voltage drop falls below the nominal operating range, but remains above 0V. In an electrical power supply system, this condition may be enacted to reduce load in an emergency and prevent a power outage, known as a blackout.



Built In Self Test B
Mechanism facilitating a machine to test itself, meeting design requirements for reliability, repair cycles, self-calibration and operational augmentation for conditional changes.



Built In Self Test B
Mechanism facilitating a machine to test itself, meeting design requirements for reliability, repair cycles, self-calibration and operational augmentation for conditional changes.



Built In Self Test B
Mechanism facilitating a machine to test itself, meeting design requirements for reliability, repair cycles, self-calibration and operational augmentation for conditional changes.



Built In Self Test B
Mechanism facilitating a machine to test itself, meeting design requirements for reliability, repair cycles, self-calibration and operational augmentation for conditional changes.



Built In Self Test B
Mechanism facilitating a machine to test itself, meeting design requirements for reliability, repair cycles, self-calibration and operational augmentation for conditional changes.



Burst Dimming B
Controlling the brightness of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) by turning the lamps on and off at a rate faster than the human eye can detect, nominally 100Hz to 300Hz. Higher ratios of on and off time will cause the lamps to become brighter.



Burst Dimming B
Controlling the brightness of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) by turning the lamps on and off at a rate faster than the human eye can detect, nominally 100Hz to 300Hz. Higher ratios of on and off time will cause the lamps to become brighter.



Burst Dimming B
Controlling the brightness of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) by turning the lamps on and off at a rate faster than the human eye can detect, nominally 100Hz to 300Hz. Higher ratios of on and off time will cause the lamps to become brighter.



Burst Dimming B
Controlling the brightness of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) by turning the lamps on and off at a rate faster than the human eye can detect, nominally 100Hz to 300Hz. Higher ratios of on and off time will cause the lamps to become brighter.



Burst Dimming B
Controlling the brightness of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) by turning the lamps on and off at a rate faster than the human eye can detect, nominally 100Hz to 300Hz. Higher ratios of on and off time will cause the lamps to become brighter.



Burst Mode B
High-speed data-transfer is made possible by exclusively prioritising processor and IO tasks to increase data rates. DMA controller and IO device are given exclusive access to the bus without interruption and allows cache to throughput with the CPU without consultation to the secondary memory, the RAM and to be free of handling device interrupts and dedicate resources to maximising IO throughput.



Burst Mode B
High-speed data-transfer is made possible by exclusively prioritising processor and IO tasks to increase data rates. DMA controller and IO device are given exclusive access to the bus without interruption and allows cache to throughput with the CPU without consultation to the secondary memory, the RAM and to be free of handling device interrupts and dedicate resources to maximising IO throughput.



Burst Mode B
High-speed data-transfer is made possible by exclusively prioritising processor and IO tasks to increase data rates. DMA controller and IO device are given exclusive access to the bus without interruption and allows cache to throughput with the CPU without consultation to the secondary memory, the RAM and to be free of handling device interrupts and dedicate resources to maximising IO throughput.



Burst Mode B
High-speed data-transfer is made possible by exclusively prioritising processor and IO tasks to increase data rates. DMA controller and IO device are given exclusive access to the bus without interruption and allows cache to throughput with the CPU without consultation to the secondary memory, the RAM and to be free of handling device interrupts and dedicate resources to maximising IO throughput.



Burst Mode B
High-speed data-transfer is made possible by exclusively prioritising processor and IO tasks to increase data rates. DMA controller and IO device are given exclusive access to the bus without interruption and allows cache to throughput with the CPU without consultation to the secondary memory, the RAM and to be free of handling device interrupts and dedicate resources to maximising IO throughput.



Bus B
Common paths connecting a number of devices with power as in voltage rails, or in data as in PCI and PCI Express Bus on a motherboard or heatsinks commanding thermodynamic control over temperature distribution.



Bus B
Common paths connecting a number of devices with power as in voltage rails, or in data as in PCI and PCI Express Bus on a motherboard or heatsinks commanding thermodynamic control over temperature distribution.



Bus B
Common paths connecting a number of devices with power as in voltage rails, or in data as in PCI and PCI Express Bus on a motherboard or heatsinks commanding thermodynamic control over temperature distribution.



Bus B
Common paths connecting a number of devices with power as in voltage rails, or in data as in PCI and PCI Express Bus on a motherboard or heatsinks commanding thermodynamic control over temperature distribution.



Bus B
Common paths connecting a number of devices with power as in voltage rails, or in data as in PCI and PCI Express Bus on a motherboard or heatsinks commanding thermodynamic control over temperature distribution.



Byte B
B, the symbol for the grouping of binary bits is commonly expressed as eight digits, representing 256 states of information as characters, starting from 00000000 (Binary 0) to 11111111 (Binary 255).

Invented by Werner Buchholz, 1956




Byte B
B, the symbol for the grouping of binary bits is commonly expressed as eight digits, representing 256 states of information as characters, starting from 00000000 (Binary 0) to 11111111 (Binary 255).

Invented by
Werner Buchholz, 1956




Byte B
B, the symbol for the grouping of binary bits is commonly expressed as eight digits, representing 256 states of information as characters, starting from 00000000 (Binary 0) to 11111111 (Binary 255).

Invented by
Werner Buchholz, 1956




Byte B
B, the symbol for the grouping of binary bits is commonly expressed as eight digits, representing 256 states of information as characters, starting from 00000000 (Binary 0) to 11111111 (Binary 255).

Invented by
Werner Buchholz, 1956




Byte B
B, the symbol for the grouping of binary bits is commonly expressed as eight digits, representing 256 states of information as characters, starting from 00000000 (Binary 0) to 11111111 (Binary 255).

Invented by
Werner Buchholz, 1956




C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
C
Cable Ethernet C
Delivery of information (data packets) to recipients (devices) within a group (network) is performed through a medium (cable). The following list comprises of copper conductors that have an electromechanical interface through a network card:
Transfer Rate Performance
Category 1 1 Mbit/s 1 MHz
Category 2 4 Mbit/s 4 MHz
Category 3 10 Mbit/s 16 MHz
Category 4 16 Mbit/s 20 MHz
Category 5 100 Mbit/s 100 MHz
Category 5e 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s
Category 6 10 Gbit/s 250 MHz
Category 6a 10 Gbit/s 500 MHz
Category 7 10 Gbit/s 600 MHz
Category 7a 10 Gbit/s 1 GHz
Category 8 40 Gbit/s 2 GHz

Cable Ethernet C
Delivery of information (data packets) to recipients (devices) within a group (network) is performed through a medium (cable). The following list comprises of copper conductors that have an electromechanical interface through a network card:
Transfer Rate Performance
Category 1 1 Mbit/s 1 MHz
Category 2 4 Mbit/s 4 MHz
Category 3 10 Mbit/s 16 MHz
Category 4 16 Mbit/s 20 MHz
Category 5 100 Mbit/s 100 MHz
Category 5e 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s
Category 6 10 Gbit/s 250 MHz
Category 6a 10 Gbit/s 500 MHz
Category 7 10 Gbit/s 600 MHz
Category 7a 10 Gbit/s 1 GHz
Category 8 40 Gbit/s 2 GHz

Cable Ethernet C
Delivery of information (data packets) to recipients (devices) within a group (network) is performed through a medium (cable). The following list comprises of copper conductors that have an electromechanical interface through a network card:
Transfer Rate Performance
Category 1 1 Mbit/s 1 MHz
Category 2 4 Mbit/s 4 MHz
Category 3 10 Mbit/s 16 MHz
Category 4 16 Mbit/s 20 MHz
Category 5 100 Mbit/s 100 MHz
Category 5e 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s
Category 6 10 Gbit/s 250 MHz
Category 6a 10 Gbit/s 500 MHz
Category 7 10 Gbit/s 600 MHz
Category 7a 10 Gbit/s 1 GHz
Category 8 40 Gbit/s 2 GHz

Cable Ethernet C
Delivery of information (data packets) to recipients (devices) within a group (network) is performed through a medium (cable). The following list comprises of copper conductors that have an electromechanical interface through a network card:
Transfer Rate Performance
Category 1 1 Mbit/s 1 MHz
Category 2 4 Mbit/s 4 MHz
Category 3 10 Mbit/s 16 MHz
Category 4 16 Mbit/s 20 MHz
Category 5 100 Mbit/s 100 MHz
Category 5e 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s
Category 6 10 Gbit/s 250 MHz
Category 6a 10 Gbit/s 500 MHz
Category 7 10 Gbit/s 600 MHz
Category 7a 10 Gbit/s 1 GHz
Category 8 40 Gbit/s 2 GHz

Cable Ethernet C
Delivery of information (data packets) to recipients (devices) within a group (network) is performed through a medium (cable). The following list comprises of copper conductors that have an electromechanical interface through a network card:
Transfer Rate Performance
CAT 1 1 Mbit/s 1 MHz
CAT 2 4 Mbit/s 4 MHz
CAT 3 10 Mbit/s 16 MHz
CAT 4 16 Mbit/s 20 MHz
CAT 5 100 Mbit/s 100 MHz
CAT 5e 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s
CAT 6 10 Gbit/s 250 MHz
CAT 6a 10 Gbit/s 500 MHz
CAT 7 10 Gbit/s 600 MHz
CAT 7a 10 Gbit/s 1 GHz
CAT 8 40 Gbit/s 2 GHz

Candela C
Candela, cd

SI Base Unit

Luminous Intensity, J

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”



Candela C
Candela, cd

SI Base Unit

Luminous Intensity, J

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”



Candela C
Candela, cd

SI Base Unit

Luminous Intensity, J

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”



Candela C
Candela, cd

SI Base Unit

Luminous Intensity, J

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”



Candela C
Candela, cd

SI Base Unit

Luminous Intensity, J

SI Base Quantity

This unit of electric current (1 amp) is the flow capacity of the electric charge in one coulomb over a duration of one second. One coulomb is equivalent to the charge of 6.242×1018 electrons.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10−7 newton per metre of length.”


Proposed:
“The ampere, A, is the unit of electric current; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the elementary charge to be equal to exactly 1.602 17X × 10−19 when it is expressed in the unit A·s, which is equal to C.”



Capacitance C
When two conductors are separated by an insulator (dielectric) electrical charge is stored as capacitance, C and is an apportionment, or multiple of, a farad (F).

Discovered by Henry Cavendish, 1771




Capacitance C
When two conductors are separated by an insulator (dielectric) electrical charge is stored as capacitance, C and is an apportionment, or multiple of, a farad (F).

Discovered by
Henry Cavendish, 1771




Capacitance C
When two conductors are separated by an insulator (dielectric) electrical charge is stored as capacitance, C and is an apportionment, or multiple of, a farad (F).

Discovered by
Henry Cavendish, 1771




Capacitance C
When two conductors are separated by an insulator (dielectric) electrical charge is stored as capacitance, C and is an apportionment, or multiple of, a farad (F).

Discovered by
Henry Cavendish, 1771




Capacitance C
When two conductors are separated by an insulator (dielectric) electrical charge is stored as capacitance, C and is an apportionment, or multiple of, a farad (F).

Discovered by
Henry Cavendish, 1771




Capacitive Reactance C
XC = – 1 / ωL = -1 / 2 π ƒ C
This measurement of a capacitor’s opposition to alternating current (AC) is similar to resistance. This value is dependent on the frequency, f, of the electrical signal affected by this capacitor and the opposition, in the form of a counter electromotive force (cemf). The Capacitive Reactance XC (Ω for Ohms) is inversely proportional to sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ or angular frequency ω (Hz for Hertz) and the capacitance C (F for Farad).

Discovered by George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Capacitive Reactance C
XC = – 1 / ωL = -1 / 2 π ƒ C
This measurement of a capacitor’s opposition to alternating current (AC) is similar to resistance. This value is dependent on the frequency, f, of the electrical signal affected by this capacitor and the opposition, in the form of a counter electromotive force (cemf). The Capacitive Reactance XC (Ω for Ohms) is inversely proportional to sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ or angular frequency ω (Hz for Hertz) and the capacitance C (F for Farad).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Capacitive Reactance C
XC = – 1 / ωL = -1 / 2 π ƒ C
This measurement of a capacitor’s opposition to alternating current (AC) is similar to resistance. This value is dependent on the frequency, f, of the electrical signal affected by this capacitor and the opposition, in the form of a counter electromotive force (cemf). The Capacitive Reactance XC (Ω for Ohms) is inversely proportional to sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ or angular frequency ω (Hz for Hertz) and the capacitance C (F for Farad).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Capacitive Reactance C
XC = – 1 / ωL = -1 / 2 π ƒ C
This measurement of a capacitor’s opposition to alternating current (AC) is similar to resistance. This value is dependent on the frequency, f, of the electrical signal affected by this capacitor and the opposition, in the form of a counter electromotive force (cemf). The Capacitive Reactance XC (Ω for Ohms) is inversely proportional to sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ or angular frequency ω (Hz for Hertz) and the capacitance C (F for Farad).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Capacitive Reactance C
XC = – 1 / ωL = -1 / 2 π ƒ C
This measurement of a capacitor’s opposition to alternating current (AC) is similar to resistance. This value is dependent on the frequency, f, of the electrical signal affected by this capacitor and the opposition, in the form of a counter electromotive force (cemf). The Capacitive Reactance XC (Ω for Ohms) is inversely proportional to sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ or angular frequency ω (Hz for Hertz) and the capacitance C (F for Farad).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Charge Coupled Device C
One of two types of image sensors used in digital cameras. As the CCD is struck by light that has traversed through the camera lens, millions of tiny pixels that make up the CCD, have converted the light into electrons. At each pixel, the accumulated charge is measured and converted to a digital value by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), then saved as a native Raw file.

Invented by Steven Sasson, 1975




Charge Coupled Device C
One of two types of image sensors used in digital cameras. As the CCD is struck by light that has traversed through the camera lens, millions of tiny pixels that make up the CCD, have converted the light into electrons. At each pixel, the accumulated charge is measured and converted to a digital value by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), then saved as a native Raw file.

Invented by
Steven Sasson, 1975




Charge Coupled Device C
One of two types of image sensors used in digital cameras. As the CCD is struck by light that has traversed through the camera lens, millions of tiny pixels that make up the CCD, have converted the light into electrons. At each pixel, the accumulated charge is measured and converted to a digital value by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), then saved as a native Raw file.

Invented by
Steven Sasson, 1975




Charge Coupled Device C
One of two types of image sensors used in digital cameras. As the CCD is struck by light that has traversed through the camera lens, millions of tiny pixels that make up the CCD, have converted the light into electrons. At each pixel, the accumulated charge is measured and converted to a digital value by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), then saved as a native Raw file.

Invented by
Steven Sasson, 1975




Charge Coupled Device C
One of two types of image sensors used in digital cameras. As the CCD is struck by light that has traversed through the camera lens, millions of tiny pixels that make up the CCD, have converted the light into electrons. At each pixel, the accumulated charge is measured and converted to a digital value by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC), then saved as a native Raw file.

Invented by
Steven Sasson, 1975




Charge Injection C
Analogue switches, turning on and off, produce a small charge with capacitive coupling from the digital control line to the analogue signal path.



Charge Injection C
Analogue switches, turning on and off, produce a small charge with capacitive coupling from the digital control line to the analogue signal path.



Charge Injection C
Analogue switches, turning on and off, produce a small charge with capacitive coupling from the digital control line to the analogue signal path.



Charge Injection C
Analogue switches, turning on and off, produce a small charge with capacitive coupling from the digital control line to the analogue signal path.



Charge Injection C
Analogue switches, turning on and off, produce a small charge with capacitive coupling from the digital control line to the analogue signal path.



Charge Pump C
Power supplies that use capacitors to store and transfer energy to the output, often stepping the voltage up or down, are able to transfer charge from one capacitor to another, under the control of a regulator and switching circuitry.



Charge Pump C
Power supplies that use capacitors to store and transfer energy to the output, often stepping the voltage up or down, are able to transfer charge from one capacitor to another, under the control of a regulator and switching circuitry.



Charge Pump C
Power supplies that use capacitors to store and transfer energy to the output, often stepping the voltage up or down, are able to transfer charge from one capacitor to another, under the control of a regulator and switching circuitry.



Charge Pump C
Power supplies that use capacitors to store and transfer energy to the output, often stepping the voltage up or down, are able to transfer charge from one capacitor to another, under the control of a regulator and switching circuitry.



Charge Pump C
Power supplies that use capacitors to store and transfer energy to the output, often stepping the voltage up or down, are able to transfer charge from one capacitor to another, under the control of a regulator and switching circuitry.



Circuit C
The simplest form of a circuit is a loop connection of a power source and light bulb. With wire, safety fuse and switch, circuit protection and control systems are created. With transistors, resistors and capacitors, an oscillator will flash the light bulb. Counting flashes by way of light dependent resistor through a transistor to a single chip processor…


Circuit design elements of infinite complexities are not impossible. With the invention battery, Allessandro immersed two electrodes into water and produced hydrogen and oxygen and created the first circuit.

Discovered by Allessandro Volta, 1799




Circuit C
The simplest form of a circuit is a loop connection of a power source and light bulb. With wire, safety fuse and switch, circuit protection and control systems are created. With transistors, resistors and capacitors, an oscillator will flash the light bulb. Counting flashes by way of light dependent resistor through a transistor to a single chip processor…


Circuit design elements of infinite complexities are not impossible. With the invention battery, Allessandro immersed two electrodes into water and produced hydrogen and oxygen and created the first circuit.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Circuit C
The simplest form of a circuit is a loop connection of a power source and light bulb. With wire, safety fuse and switch, circuit protection and control systems are created. With transistors, resistors and capacitors, an oscillator will flash the light bulb. Counting flashes by way of light dependent resistor through a transistor to a single chip processor…


Circuit design elements of infinite complexities are not impossible. With the invention battery, Allessandro immersed two electrodes into water and produced hydrogen and oxygen and created the first circuit.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Circuit C
The simplest form of a circuit is a loop connection of a power source and light bulb. With wire, safety fuse and switch, circuit protection and control systems are created. With transistors, resistors and capacitors, an oscillator will flash the light bulb. Counting flashes by way of light dependent resistor through a transistor to a single chip processor…


Circuit design elements of infinite complexities are not impossible. With the invention battery, Allessandro immersed two electrodes into water and produced hydrogen and oxygen and created the first circuit.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Circuit C
The simplest form of a circuit is a loop connection of a power source and light bulb. With wire, safety fuse and switch, circuit protection and control systems are created. With transistors, resistors and capacitors, an oscillator will flash the light bulb. Counting flashes by way of light dependent resistor through a transistor to a single chip processor…


Circuit design elements of infinite complexities are not impossible. With the invention battery, Allessandro immersed two electrodes into water and produced hydrogen and oxygen and created the first circuit.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Clock Data Recovery C
Extracts a clock signal from an incoming data stream to facilitate the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols. High-speed serial data streams are sent without an accompanying clock signal, as the receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns the clock to the transitions in the data stream with a phase-locked loop.



Clock Data Recovery C
Extracts a clock signal from an incoming data stream to facilitate the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols. High-speed serial data streams are sent without an accompanying clock signal, as the receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns the clock to the transitions in the data stream with a phase-locked loop.



Clock Data Recovery C
Extracts a clock signal from an incoming data stream to facilitate the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols. High-speed serial data streams are sent without an accompanying clock signal, as the receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns the clock to the transitions in the data stream with a phase-locked loop.



Clock Data Recovery C
Extracts a clock signal from an incoming data stream to facilitate the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols. High-speed serial data streams are sent without an accompanying clock signal, as the receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns the clock to the transitions in the data stream with a phase-locked loop.



Clock Data Recovery C
Extracts a clock signal from an incoming data stream to facilitate the receiving circuit to decode the transmitted symbols. High-speed serial data streams are sent without an accompanying clock signal, as the receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns the clock to the transitions in the data stream with a phase-locked loop.



Code Division Multiple Access C
Digital cellular technology uses spread-spectrum techniques and unlike GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency for each user, every channel uses the full available spectrum with individual conversations encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.



Code Division Multiple Access C
Digital cellular technology uses spread-spectrum techniques and unlike GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency for each user, every channel uses the full available spectrum with individual conversations encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.



Code Division Multiple Access C
Digital cellular technology uses spread-spectrum techniques and unlike GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency for each user, every channel uses the full available spectrum with individual conversations encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.



Code Division Multiple Access C
Digital cellular technology uses spread-spectrum techniques and unlike GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency for each user, every channel uses the full available spectrum with individual conversations encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.



Code Division Multiple Access C
Digital cellular technology uses spread-spectrum techniques and unlike GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency for each user, every channel uses the full available spectrum with individual conversations encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence.



Coherent Sampling C
Describes the sampling of a periodic signal, where an integer number of its cycles fits into a predefined sampling window. A specific Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence or its inverse, then converts this original signal to a modified representation.



Coherent Sampling C
Describes the sampling of a periodic signal, where an integer number of its cycles fits into a predefined sampling window. A specific Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence or its inverse, then converts this original signal to a modified representation.



Coherent Sampling C
Describes the sampling of a periodic signal, where an integer number of its cycles fits into a predefined sampling window. A specific Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence or its inverse, then converts this original signal to a modified representation.



Coherent Sampling C
Describes the sampling of a periodic signal, where an integer number of its cycles fits into a predefined sampling window. A specific Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence or its inverse, then converts this original signal to a modified representation.



Coherent Sampling C
Describes the sampling of a periodic signal, where an integer number of its cycles fits into a predefined sampling window. A specific Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm computes the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a sequence or its inverse, then converts this original signal to a modified representation.



Colour Subcarrier C
A modulated carrier, added to a television signal, to carry the colour components. In NTSC television, a 3.579’545 MHz colour subcarrier is quadrature-modulated by two colour-difference signals and added to the luminance signal. The PAL television standard uses a subcarrier frequency of 4.433’62 MHz.



Colour Subcarrier C
A modulated carrier, added to a television signal, to carry the colour components. In NTSC television, a 3.579’545 MHz colour subcarrier is quadrature-modulated by two colour-difference signals and added to the luminance signal. The PAL television standard uses a subcarrier frequency of 4.433’62 MHz.



Colour Subcarrier C
A modulated carrier, added to a television signal, to carry the colour components. In NTSC television, a 3.579’545 MHz colour subcarrier is quadrature-modulated by two colour-difference signals and added to the luminance signal. The PAL television standard uses a subcarrier frequency of 4.433’62 MHz.



Colour Subcarrier C
A modulated carrier, added to a television signal, to carry the colour components. In NTSC television, a 3.579’545 MHz colour subcarrier is quadrature-modulated by two colour-difference signals and added to the luminance signal. The PAL television standard uses a subcarrier frequency of 4.433’62 MHz.



Colour Subcarrier C
A modulated carrier, added to a television signal, to carry the colour components. In NTSC television, a 3.579’545 MHz colour subcarrier is quadrature-modulated by two colour-difference signals and added to the luminance signal. The PAL television standard uses a subcarrier frequency of 4.433’62 MHz.



Column-Address-Strobe C
Signal notifying DRAM to accept a given address as a column-address. RAS is the Row-Address-Strobe to select a bit within the DRAM.



Column-Address-Strobe C
Signal notifying DRAM to accept a given address as a column-address. RAS is the Row-Address-Strobe to select a bit within the DRAM.



Column-Address-Strobe C
Signal notifying DRAM to accept a given address as a column-address. RAS is the Row-Address-Strobe to select a bit within the DRAM.



Column-Address-Strobe C
Signal notifying DRAM to accept a given address as a column-address. RAS is the Row-Address-Strobe to select a bit within the DRAM.



Column-Address-Strobe C
Signal notifying DRAM to accept a given address as a column-address. RAS is the Row-Address-Strobe to select a bit within the DRAM.



Common-Mode Signals C
Identical signal components on both the + and – inputs of an amplifier is an example of a balanced pair, where a noise voltage is induced in both conductors. In an ideal differential amp, the common-mode element is cancelled out, since the differential (+ and -) inputs should subtract out the identical components. A measurement of the actual ability to do this is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio, or CMRR.



Common-Mode Signals C
Identical signal components on both the + and – inputs of an amplifier is an example of a balanced pair, where a noise voltage is induced in both conductors. In an ideal differential amp, the common-mode element is cancelled out, since the differential (+ and -) inputs should subtract out the identical components. A measurement of the actual ability to do this is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio, or CMRR.



Common-Mode Signals C
Identical signal components on both the + and – inputs of an amplifier is an example of a balanced pair, where a noise voltage is induced in both conductors. In an ideal differential amp, the common-mode element is cancelled out, since the differential (+ and -) inputs should subtract out the identical components. A measurement of the actual ability to do this is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio, or CMRR.



Common-Mode Signals C
Identical signal components on both the + and – inputs of an amplifier is an example of a balanced pair, where a noise voltage is induced in both conductors. In an ideal differential amp, the common-mode element is cancelled out, since the differential (+ and -) inputs should subtract out the identical components. A measurement of the actual ability to do this is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio, or CMRR.



Common-Mode Signals C
Identical signal components on both the + and – inputs of an amplifier is an example of a balanced pair, where a noise voltage is induced in both conductors. In an ideal differential amp, the common-mode element is cancelled out, since the differential (+ and -) inputs should subtract out the identical components. A measurement of the actual ability to do this is called the Common Mode Rejection Ratio, or CMRR.



Comparator C
Device that accepts two analogue inputs, compares, then produces a binary output that is a function of which input is higher. If the non-inverting (+) input is greater than the inverting (-) input, then the output goes high. If the inverting (-) input is greater than the non-inverting (+) input, then the output goes low.



Comparator C
Device that accepts two analogue inputs, compares, then produces a binary output that is a function of which input is higher. If the non-inverting (+) input is greater than the inverting (-) input, then the output goes high. If the inverting (-) input is greater than the non-inverting (+) input, then the output goes low.



Comparator C
Device that accepts two analogue inputs, compares, then produces a binary output that is a function of which input is higher. If the non-inverting (+) input is greater than the inverting (-) input, then the output goes high. If the inverting (-) input is greater than the non-inverting (+) input, then the output goes low.



Comparator C
Device that accepts two analogue inputs, compares, then produces a binary output that is a function of which input is higher. If the non-inverting (+) input is greater than the inverting (-) input, then the output goes high. If the inverting (-) input is greater than the non-inverting (+) input, then the output goes low.



Comparator C
Device that accepts two analogue inputs, compares, then produces a binary output that is a function of which input is higher. If the non-inverting (+) input is greater than the inverting (-) input, then the output goes high. If the inverting (-) input is greater than the non-inverting (+) input, then the output goes low.



Comparator Propagation Delay C
Two or more independent comparators with consideration to the individual gate propagation delay, which is when the input duration of a logic gate becomes stable, to the time that the output logic gate becomes stable. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows for faster data processing rates and overall performance, as is the major contributor of glitches within asynchronous circuits.



Comparator Propagation Delay C
Two or more independent comparators with consideration to the individual gate propagation delay, which is when the input duration of a logic gate becomes stable, to the time that the output logic gate becomes stable. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows for faster data processing rates and overall performance, as is the major contributor of glitches within asynchronous circuits.



Comparator Propagation Delay C
Two or more independent comparators with consideration to the individual gate propagation delay, which is when the input duration of a logic gate becomes stable, to the time that the output logic gate becomes stable. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows for faster data processing rates and overall performance, as is the major contributor of glitches within asynchronous circuits.



Comparator Propagation Delay C
Two or more independent comparators with consideration to the individual gate propagation delay, which is when the input duration of a logic gate becomes stable, to the time that the output logic gate becomes stable. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows for faster data processing rates and overall performance, as is the major contributor of glitches within asynchronous circuits.



Comparator Propagation Delay C
Two or more independent comparators with consideration to the individual gate propagation delay, which is when the input duration of a logic gate becomes stable, to the time that the output logic gate becomes stable. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows for faster data processing rates and overall performance, as is the major contributor of glitches within asynchronous circuits.



Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
C
Fabrication methods for constructing integrated circuits as used within microprocessors, microcontrollers and a host of memory, sensors and control components. The important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption with minimal waste heat as compared to TTL logic.

Discovered by Frank Wanlass, 1964




Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
C
Fabrication methods for constructing integrated circuits as used within microprocessors, microcontrollers and a host of memory, sensors and control components. The important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption with minimal waste heat as compared to TTL logic.

Discovered by
Frank Wanlass, 1964




Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
C
Fabrication methods for constructing integrated circuits as used within microprocessors, microcontrollers and a host of memory, sensors and control components. The important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption with minimal waste heat as compared to TTL logic.

Discovered by
Frank Wanlass, 1964




Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
C
Fabrication methods for constructing integrated circuits as used within microprocessors, microcontrollers and a host of memory, sensors and control components. The important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption with minimal waste heat as compared to TTL logic.

Discovered by
Frank Wanlass, 1964




Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor
C
Fabrication methods for constructing integrated circuits as used within microprocessors, microcontrollers and a host of memory, sensors and control components. The important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption with minimal waste heat as compared to TTL logic.

Discovered by
Frank Wanlass, 1964




Conductor C
The ability of a conductor to allow the flow of electrons of which is the reciprocal of resistance. Measured in Siemens (S), the formula for conductance, G is equal to: G = Current (I) / Voltage (V) = 1 / resistance.

Discovered by Stephen Gray, 1729




Conductor C
The ability of a conductor to allow the flow of electrons of which is the reciprocal of resistance. Measured in Siemens (S), the formula for conductance, G is equal to: G = Current (I) / Voltage (V) = 1 / resistance.

Discovered by
Stephen Gray, 1729




Conductor C
The ability of a conductor to allow the flow of electrons of which is the reciprocal of resistance. Measured in Siemens (S), the formula for conductance, G is equal to: G = Current (I) / Voltage (V) = 1 / resistance.

Discovered by
Stephen Gray, 1729




Conductor C
The ability of a conductor to allow the flow of electrons of which is the reciprocal of resistance. Measured in Siemens (S), the formula for conductance, G is equal to: G = Current (I) / Voltage (V) = 1 / resistance.

Discovered by
Stephen Gray, 1729




Conductor C
The ability of a conductor to allow the flow of electrons of which is the reciprocal of resistance. Measured in Siemens (S), the formula for conductance, G is equal to: G = Current (I) / Voltage (V) = 1 / resistance.

Discovered by
Stephen Gray, 1729




Coulomb C
Coulomb, C

SI Derived Unit

Electric Charge, Amount of Electricity

SI Derived Quantity

A·s

SI Base Expression

This base unit of electrical charge is equal to 6.25 X 1018 electrons. Named for Charles Coulomb, the French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity, whom also formulated Coulomb’s law which states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is equal to the product of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Named after Charles Augustin de Coulomb




Coulomb C
Coulomb, C

SI Derived Unit

Electric Charge, Amount of Electricity

SI Derived Quantity

A·s

SI Base Expression

This base unit of electrical charge is equal to 6.25 X 1018 electrons. Named for Charles Coulomb, the French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity, whom also formulated Coulomb’s law which states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is equal to the product of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Named after
Charles Augustin de Coulomb




Coulomb C
Coulomb, C

SI Derived Unit

Electric Charge, Amount of Electricity

SI Derived Quantity

A·s

SI Base Expression

This base unit of electrical charge is equal to 6.25 X 1018 electrons. Named for Charles Coulomb, the French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity, whom also formulated Coulomb’s law which states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is equal to the product of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Named after
Charles Augustin de Coulomb




Coulomb C
Coulomb, C

SI Derived Unit

Electric Charge, Amount of Electricity

SI Derived Quantity

A·s

SI Base Expression

This base unit of electrical charge is equal to 6.25 X 1018 electrons. Named for Charles Coulomb, the French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity, whom also formulated Coulomb’s law which states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is equal to the product of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Named after
Charles Augustin de Coulomb




Coulomb C
Coulomb, C

SI Derived Unit

Electric Charge, Amount of Electricity

SI Derived Quantity

A·s

SI Base Expression

This base unit of electrical charge is equal to 6.25 X 1018 electrons. Named for Charles Coulomb, the French physicist who pioneered research into magnetism and electricity, whom also formulated Coulomb’s law which states that the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is equal to the product of the two charges and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Named after
Charles Augustin de Coulomb




Crowbar Circuit C
Power supply protection circuit that rapidly short-circuits (“crowbars”) the supply line if the voltage and/or current exceeds defined limits. In practice, the resulting short blows a fuse or triggers other protection, effectively shutting down the supply. It is usually achieved by an SCR or by a mechanical shorting device.



Crowbar Circuit C
Power supply protection circuit that rapidly short-circuits (“crowbars”) the supply line if the voltage and/or current exceeds defined limits. In practice, the resulting short blows a fuse or triggers other protection, effectively shutting down the supply. It is usually achieved by an SCR or by a mechanical shorting device.



Crowbar Circuit C
Power supply protection circuit that rapidly short-circuits (“crowbars”) the supply line if the voltage and/or current exceeds defined limits. In practice, the resulting short blows a fuse or triggers other protection, effectively shutting down the supply. It is usually achieved by an SCR or by a mechanical shorting device.



Crowbar Circuit C
Power supply protection circuit that rapidly short-circuits (“crowbars”) the supply line if the voltage and/or current exceeds defined limits. In practice, the resulting short blows a fuse or triggers other protection, effectively shutting down the supply. It is usually achieved by an SCR or by a mechanical shorting device.



Crowbar Circuit C
Power supply protection circuit that rapidly short-circuits (“crowbars”) the supply line if the voltage and/or current exceeds defined limits. In practice, the resulting short blows a fuse or triggers other protection, effectively shutting down the supply. It is usually achieved by an SCR or by a mechanical shorting device.



Current C
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor or component; measured in amperes. The symbol (I) stands for intensity of the electron flow (current), measured in Amps (A).

Discovered by André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Current C
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor or component; measured in amperes. The symbol (I) stands for intensity of the electron flow (current), measured in Amps (A).

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Current C
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor or component; measured in amperes. The symbol (I) stands for intensity of the electron flow (current), measured in Amps (A).

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Current C
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor or component; measured in amperes. The symbol (I) stands for intensity of the electron flow (current), measured in Amps (A).

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Current C
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor or component; measured in amperes. The symbol (I) stands for intensity of the electron flow (current), measured in Amps (A).

Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère, 1820




Cyclic Redundancy Check C
Check values calculated from the data, to catch most transmission errors as a decoder calculates the CRC for the received data, compares it to the CRC that the encoder calculated, which is then appended to the data. A mismatch indicates that the data was corrupted in transit. Depending on the algorithm and number of CRC bits, come CRCs contain enough redundant information that they can be used to correct the data.



Cyclic Redundancy Check C
Check values calculated from the data, to catch most transmission errors as a decoder calculates the CRC for the received data, compares it to the CRC that the encoder calculated, which is then appended to the data. A mismatch indicates that the data was corrupted in transit. Depending on the algorithm and number of CRC bits, come CRCs contain enough redundant information that they can be used to correct the data.



Cyclic Redundancy Check C
Check values calculated from the data, to catch most transmission errors as a decoder calculates the CRC for the received data, compares it to the CRC that the encoder calculated, which is then appended to the data. A mismatch indicates that the data was corrupted in transit. Depending on the algorithm and number of CRC bits, come CRCs contain enough redundant information that they can be used to correct the data.



Cyclic Redundancy Check C
Check values calculated from the data, to catch most transmission errors as a decoder calculates the CRC for the received data, compares it to the CRC that the encoder calculated, which is then appended to the data. A mismatch indicates that the data was corrupted in transit. Depending on the algorithm and number of CRC bits, come CRCs contain enough redundant information that they can be used to correct the data.



Cyclic Redundancy Check C
Check values calculated from the data, to catch most transmission errors as a decoder calculates the CRC for the received data, compares it to the CRC that the encoder calculated, which is then appended to the data. A mismatch indicates that the data was corrupted in transit. Depending on the algorithm and number of CRC bits, come CRCs contain enough redundant information that they can be used to correct the data.



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Daisy Chain D
Method of propagating signals along a bus of which devices are connected in series, passing the signal from one device to the next. This daisy chain scheme permits assignment of device priorities based on the electrical position of the device on the bus.



Daisy Chain D
Method of propagating signals along a bus of which devices are connected in series, passing the signal from one device to the next. This daisy chain scheme permits assignment of device priorities based on the electrical position of the device on the bus.



Daisy Chain D
Method of propagating signals along a bus of which devices are connected in series, passing the signal from one device to the next. This daisy chain scheme permits assignment of device priorities based on the electrical position of the device on the bus.



Daisy Chain D
Method of propagating signals along a bus of which devices are connected in series, passing the signal from one device to the next. This daisy chain scheme permits assignment of device priorities based on the electrical position of the device on the bus.



Daisy Chain D
Method of propagating signals along a bus of which devices are connected in series, passing the signal from one device to the next. This daisy chain scheme permits assignment of device priorities based on the electrical position of the device on the bus.



Debounce D
Electrical contacts, as in mechanical switches, relays or contactors, often make and break contact several times before continuous conduction is achieved. A debouncing circuit will this ripple and provides a clean transition.



Debounce D
Electrical contacts, as in mechanical switches, relays or contactors, often make and break contact several times before continuous conduction is achieved. A debouncing circuit will this ripple and provides a clean transition.



Debounce D
Electrical contacts, as in mechanical switches, relays or contactors, often make and break contact several times before continuous conduction is achieved. A debouncing circuit will this ripple and provides a clean transition.



Debounce D
Electrical contacts, as in mechanical switches, relays or contactors, often make and break contact several times before continuous conduction is achieved. A debouncing circuit will this ripple and provides a clean transition.



Debounce D
Electrical contacts, as in mechanical switches, relays or contactors, often make and break contact several times before continuous conduction is achieved. A debouncing circuit will this ripple and provides a clean transition.



Decibel D
Method for specifying the ratio of two signals. The dB = 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of the two signal = 20 times the ratio of their voltages, if the signals are driving equal impedances. Decibels describe a signal level by comparing it to a reference which is defined as 0dB which is 10 times the log of the signal power over that reference.



Decibel D
Method for specifying the ratio of two signals. The dB = 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of the two signal = 20 times the ratio of their voltages, if the signals are driving equal impedances. Decibels describe a signal level by comparing it to a reference which is defined as 0dB which is 10 times the log of the signal power over that reference.



Decibel D
Method for specifying the ratio of two signals. The dB = 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of the two signal = 20 times the ratio of their voltages, if the signals are driving equal impedances. Decibels describe a signal level by comparing it to a reference which is defined as 0dB which is 10 times the log of the signal power over that reference.



Decibel D
Method for specifying the ratio of two signals. The dB = 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of the two signal = 20 times the ratio of their voltages, if the signals are driving equal impedances. Decibels describe a signal level by comparing it to a reference which is defined as 0dB which is 10 times the log of the signal power over that reference.



Decibel D
Method for specifying the ratio of two signals. The dB = 10 times the log of the ratio of the power of the two signal = 20 times the ratio of their voltages, if the signals are driving equal impedances. Decibels describe a signal level by comparing it to a reference which is defined as 0dB which is 10 times the log of the signal power over that reference.



Degrees Celsius D
Degrees Celsius, °C

SI Derived Unit

Celsius Temperature

SI Derived Quantity

K

SI Base Expression

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. From 1744 to 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C.

Named after Anders Celsius




Degrees Celsius D
Degrees Celsius, °C

SI Derived Unit

Celsius Temperature

SI Derived Quantity

K

SI Base Expression

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. From 1744 to 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C.

Named after
Anders Celsius




Degrees Celsius D
Degrees Celsius, °C

SI Derived Unit

Celsius Temperature

SI Derived Quantity

K

SI Base Expression

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. From 1744 to 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C.

Named after
Anders Celsius




Degrees Celsius D
Degrees Celsius, °C

SI Derived Unit

Celsius Temperature

SI Derived Quantity

K

SI Base Expression

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. From 1744 to 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C.

Named after
Anders Celsius




Degrees Celsius D
Degrees Celsius, °C

SI Derived Unit

Celsius Temperature

SI Derived Quantity

K

SI Base Expression

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. From 1744 to 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere with mercury being the working material. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C.

Named after
Anders Celsius




Delta-Sigma Converter D
ADC architecture of Delta-Sigma consists of 1-bit ADC filtering circuitry which oversamples the input signal to performs noise-shaping and achieve a high-resolution digital output and is also known as a Sigma-Delta Converter.



Delta-Sigma Converter D
ADC architecture of Delta-Sigma consists of 1-bit ADC filtering circuitry which oversamples the input signal to performs noise-shaping and achieve a high-resolution digital output and is also known as a Sigma-Delta Converter.



Delta-Sigma Converter D
ADC architecture of Delta-Sigma consists of 1-bit ADC filtering circuitry which oversamples the input signal to performs noise-shaping and achieve a high-resolution digital output and is also known as a Sigma-Delta Converter.



Delta-Sigma Converter D
ADC architecture of Delta-Sigma consists of 1-bit ADC filtering circuitry which oversamples the input signal to performs noise-shaping and achieve a high-resolution digital output and is also known as a Sigma-Delta Converter.



Delta-Sigma Converter D
ADC architecture of Delta-Sigma consists of 1-bit ADC filtering circuitry which oversamples the input signal to performs noise-shaping and achieve a high-resolution digital output and is also known as a Sigma-Delta Converter.



Design For Testibility D
Design techniques which make products easier to test and are included in the manufacturing process. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnosis and test modes.



Design For Testibility D
Design techniques which make products easier to test and are included in the manufacturing process. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnosis and test modes.



Design For Testibility D
Design techniques which make products easier to test and are included in the manufacturing process. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnosis and test modes.



Design For Testibility D
Design techniques which make products easier to test and are included in the manufacturing process. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnosis and test modes.



Design For Testibility D
Design techniques which make products easier to test and are included in the manufacturing process. Examples include the addition of test points, parametric measurement devices, self-test diagnosis and test modes.



Differential Signalling D
Most electrical signals are single-ended with a single wire and ground connection. Differential signals use two wires, inverse of each other, when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude.
The receiving circuit will look at only the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage. This method reduces the impact of electrical interference, as external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. Examples include the RS-422, RS-485, signal lines employed by Ethernet standards and the twisted-pair analogue telephone (POTS) line.



Differential Signalling D
Most electrical signals are single-ended with a single wire and ground connection. Differential signals use two wires, inverse of each other, when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude.
The receiving circuit will look at only the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage. This method reduces the impact of electrical interference, as external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. Examples include the RS-422, RS-485, signal lines employed by Ethernet standards and the twisted-pair analogue telephone (POTS) line.



Differential Signalling D
Most electrical signals are single-ended with a single wire and ground connection. Differential signals use two wires, inverse of each other, when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude.
The receiving circuit will look at only the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage. This method reduces the impact of electrical interference, as external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. Examples include the RS-422, RS-485, signal lines employed by Ethernet standards and the twisted-pair analogue telephone (POTS) line.



Differential Signalling D
Most electrical signals are single-ended with a single wire and ground connection. Differential signals use two wires, inverse of each other, when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude.
The receiving circuit will look at only the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage. This method reduces the impact of electrical interference, as external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. Examples include the RS-422, RS-485, signal lines employed by Ethernet standards and the twisted-pair analogue telephone (POTS) line.



Differential Signalling D
Most electrical signals are single-ended with a single wire and ground connection. Differential signals use two wires, inverse of each other, when one swings positive, the other swings negative in equal magnitude.
The receiving circuit will look at only the difference between the two, ignoring any common-mode voltage. This method reduces the impact of electrical interference, as external noise will affect both wires equally and the common-mode rejection will ignore the noise. Examples include the RS-422, RS-485, signal lines employed by Ethernet standards and the twisted-pair analogue telephone (POTS) line.



Direct Current D
Power source with current continually flowing in the same direction is known as direct current. Alternating current can be rectified to maintain the same current flow by use of a full bridge rectifier or alternatively, a direct current supply may be converted into alternating current by use of an inverter.

Discovered by Allessandro Volta, 1799




Direct Current D
Power source with current continually flowing in the same direction is known as direct current. Alternating current can be rectified to maintain the same current flow by use of a full bridge rectifier or alternatively, a direct current supply may be converted into alternating current by use of an inverter.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Direct Current D
Power source with current continually flowing in the same direction is known as direct current. Alternating current can be rectified to maintain the same current flow by use of a full bridge rectifier or alternatively, a direct current supply may be converted into alternating current by use of an inverter.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Direct Current D
Power source with current continually flowing in the same direction is known as direct current. Alternating current can be rectified to maintain the same current flow by use of a full bridge rectifier or alternatively, a direct current supply may be converted into alternating current by use of an inverter.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Direct Current D
Power source with current continually flowing in the same direction is known as direct current. Alternating current can be rectified to maintain the same current flow by use of a full bridge rectifier or alternatively, a direct current supply may be converted into alternating current by use of an inverter.

Discovered by
Allessandro Volta, 1799




Direct Digital Synthesis D
Method for digitally generating analogue waveforms, such as sine waves. Digitised samples of waveforms are stored with values that are clocked out to a D/A converter. Translation values, as in the clock rate, will change the frequency and changes to gain will modulate the signal.



Direct Digital Synthesis D
Method for digitally generating analogue waveforms, such as sine waves. Digitised samples of waveforms are stored with values that are clocked out to a D/A converter. Translation values, as in the clock rate, will change the frequency and changes to gain will modulate the signal.



Direct Digital Synthesis D
Method for digitally generating analogue waveforms, such as sine waves. Digitised samples of waveforms are stored with values that are clocked out to a D/A converter. Translation values, as in the clock rate, will change the frequency and changes to gain will modulate the signal.



Direct Digital Synthesis D
Method for digitally generating analogue waveforms, such as sine waves. Digitised samples of waveforms are stored with values that are clocked out to a D/A converter. Translation values, as in the clock rate, will change the frequency and changes to gain will modulate the signal.



Direct Digital Synthesis D
Method for digitally generating analogue waveforms, such as sine waves. Digitised samples of waveforms are stored with values that are clocked out to a D/A converter. Translation values, as in the clock rate, will change the frequency and changes to gain will modulate the signal.



Direct Memory Access D
Allows hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU). When a CPU uses a programmed input/output, it instructs the DMA controller to carry out the transfer, and receive an interrupt upon completion. Most hardware operates with DMA, relieving pressure from processors and include intra-chip data transfers, disk drive controllers, graphics, network, and audio devices.



Direct Memory Access D
Allows hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU). When a CPU uses a programmed input/output, it instructs the DMA controller to carry out the transfer, and receive an interrupt upon completion. Most hardware operates with DMA, relieving pressure from processors and include intra-chip data transfers, disk drive controllers, graphics, network, and audio devices.



Direct Memory Access D
Allows hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU). When a CPU uses a programmed input/output, it instructs the DMA controller to carry out the transfer, and receive an interrupt upon completion. Most hardware operates with DMA, relieving pressure from processors and include intra-chip data transfers, disk drive controllers, graphics, network, and audio devices.



Direct Memory Access D
Allows hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU). When a CPU uses a programmed input/output, it instructs the DMA controller to carry out the transfer, and receive an interrupt upon completion. Most hardware operates with DMA, relieving pressure from processors and include intra-chip data transfers, disk drive controllers, graphics, network, and audio devices.



Direct Memory Access D
Allows hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU). When a CPU uses a programmed input/output, it instructs the DMA controller to carry out the transfer, and receive an interrupt upon completion. Most hardware operates with DMA, relieving pressure from processors and include intra-chip data transfers, disk drive controllers, graphics, network, and audio devices.



Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum D
Transmission technology used in a Wireless LAN, WLAN, whereby transmissions at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.



Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum D
Transmission technology used in a Wireless LAN, WLAN, whereby transmissions at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.



Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum D
Transmission technology used in a Wireless LAN, WLAN, whereby transmissions at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.



Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum D
Transmission technology used in a Wireless LAN, WLAN, whereby transmissions at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.



Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum D
Transmission technology used in a Wireless LAN, WLAN, whereby transmissions at the sending station is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence, or chipping code, that divides the user data according to a spreading ratio.



Down Converter D
Device in digital signal processing, that converts a band limited signal to a lower frequency signal, preserving all information in the original signal less mathematical rounding errors and principally consisting of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a low-pass filter (LPF).



Down Converter D
Device in digital signal processing, that converts a band limited signal to a lower frequency signal, preserving all information in the original signal less mathematical rounding errors and principally consisting of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a low-pass filter (LPF).



Down Converter D
Device in digital signal processing, that converts a band limited signal to a lower frequency signal, preserving all information in the original signal less mathematical rounding errors and principally consisting of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a low-pass filter (LPF).



Down Converter D
Device in digital signal processing, that converts a band limited signal to a lower frequency signal, preserving all information in the original signal less mathematical rounding errors and principally consisting of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a low-pass filter (LPF).



Down Converter D
Device in digital signal processing, that converts a band limited signal to a lower frequency signal, preserving all information in the original signal less mathematical rounding errors and principally consisting of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a low-pass filter (LPF).



Drain D
One of the three terminals of a Field Effect Transistor, FET. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.



Drain D
One of the three terminals of a Field Effect Transistor, FET. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.



Drain D
One of the three terminals of a Field Effect Transistor, FET. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.



Drain D
One of the three terminals of a Field Effect Transistor, FET. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.



Drain D
One of the three terminals of a Field Effect Transistor, FET. A voltage on the gate controls the current flow between the source and drain.



Drypack D
Method for packing electronic components, in particular, integrated circuits as the device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. Part numbers with D, +D, or #D at the end, denote products with treated by this packaging process.



Drypack D
Method for packing electronic components, in particular, integrated circuits as the device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. Part numbers with D, +D, or #D at the end, denote products with treated by this packaging process.



Drypack D
Method for packing electronic components, in particular, integrated circuits as the device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. Part numbers with D, +D, or #D at the end, denote products with treated by this packaging process.



Drypack D
Method for packing electronic components, in particular, integrated circuits as the device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. Part numbers with D, +D, or #D at the end, denote products with treated by this packaging process.



Drypack D
Method for packing electronic components, in particular, integrated circuits as the device is baked and immediately sealed in a vacuum-sealed bag. Part numbers with D, +D, or #D at the end, denote products with treated by this packaging process.



Dual Modulus Prescaler D
Important circuit block used in frequency synthesizers to divide the high-frequency signals from a Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO, to a low-frequency signal by a predetermined divide ratio, either N+1 or N, controlled by a swallow counter. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers.



Dual Modulus Prescaler D
Important circuit block used in frequency synthesizers to divide the high-frequency signals from a Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO, to a low-frequency signal by a predetermined divide ratio, either N+1 or N, controlled by a swallow counter. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers.



Dual Modulus Prescaler D
Important circuit block used in frequency synthesizers to divide the high-frequency signals from a Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO, to a low-frequency signal by a predetermined divide ratio, either N+1 or N, controlled by a swallow counter. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers.



Dual Modulus Prescaler D
Important circuit block used in frequency synthesizers to divide the high-frequency signals from a Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO, to a low-frequency signal by a predetermined divide ratio, either N+1 or N, controlled by a swallow counter. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers.



Dual Modulus Prescaler D
Important circuit block used in frequency synthesizers to divide the high-frequency signals from a Voltage Controlled Oscillator, VCO, to a low-frequency signal by a predetermined divide ratio, either N+1 or N, controlled by a swallow counter. This low-frequency signal is then further divided by the main counter to the desired channel-spacing frequency which is then fed to the phase detector to form the closed feedback loop in frequency synthesizers.



Dual Tone Multiple Frequency D
Signalling method developed by Bell Labs for sending telephone dialling information over the same phone line with each digit encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies and this two-tone method is reliably distinguished from voice.



Dual Tone Multiple Frequency D
Signalling method developed by Bell Labs for sending telephone dialling information over the same phone line with each digit encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies and this two-tone method is reliably distinguished from voice.



Dual Tone Multiple Frequency D
Signalling method developed by Bell Labs for sending telephone dialling information over the same phone line with each digit encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies and this two-tone method is reliably distinguished from voice.



Dual Tone Multiple Frequency D
Signalling method developed by Bell Labs for sending telephone dialling information over the same phone line with each digit encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies and this two-tone method is reliably distinguished from voice.



Dual Tone Multiple Frequency D
Signalling method developed by Bell Labs for sending telephone dialling information over the same phone line with each digit encoded as the sum of two sine wave bursts, of different frequencies and this two-tone method is reliably distinguished from voice.



Duplex D
Duplex is a communication channel provides simultaneous data transfer in both directions. Half Duplex is a The data transmission over a single communication channel is in either direction but not simultaneously.



Duplex D
Duplex is a communication channel provides simultaneous data transfer in both directions. Half Duplex is a The data transmission over a single communication channel is in either direction but not simultaneously.



Duplex D
Duplex is a communication channel provides simultaneous data transfer in both directions. Half Duplex is a The data transmission over a single communication channel is in either direction but not simultaneously.



Duplex D
Duplex is a communication channel provides simultaneous data transfer in both directions. Half Duplex is a The data transmission over a single communication channel is in either direction but not simultaneously.



Duplex D
Duplex is a communication channel provides simultaneous data transfer in both directions. Half Duplex is a The data transmission over a single communication channel is in either direction but not simultaneously.



Duty Cycle D
Ratio of Pulse Width to Period, indicating the percentage of time a pulse is present during one cycle, and expressed as a percentage or a ratio. D = Duty Cycle, PW = Pulse Width (Active Time) and T = Total Signal Period. D = PW/T × 100%



Duty Cycle D
Ratio of Pulse Width to Period, indicating the percentage of time a pulse is present during one cycle, and expressed as a percentage or a ratio. D = Duty Cycle, PW = Pulse Width (Active Time) and T = Total Signal Period. D = PW/T × 100%



Duty Cycle D
Ratio of Pulse Width to Period, indicating the percentage of time a pulse is present during one cycle, and expressed as a percentage or a ratio. D = Duty Cycle, PW = Pulse Width (Active Time) and T = Total Signal Period. D = PW/T × 100%



Duty Cycle D
Ratio of Pulse Width to Period, indicating the percentage of time a pulse is present during one cycle, and expressed as a percentage or a ratio. D = Duty Cycle, PW = Pulse Width (Active Time) and T = Total Signal Period. D = PW/T × 100%



Duty Cycle D
Ratio of Pulse Width to Period, indicating the percentage of time a pulse is present during one cycle, and expressed as a percentage or a ratio. D = Duty Cycle, PW = Pulse Width (Active Time) and T = Total Signal Period. D = PW/T × 100%



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Effective Series Resistance E
Resistive component of a capacitor’s equivalent circuit, as modelled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and inductor, resistor value is the ESR.



Effective Series Resistance E
Resistive component of a capacitor’s equivalent circuit, as modelled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and inductor, resistor value is the ESR.



Effective Series Resistance E
Resistive component of a capacitor’s equivalent circuit, as modelled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and inductor, resistor value is the ESR.



Effective Series Resistance E
Resistive component of a capacitor’s equivalent circuit, as modelled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and inductor, resistor value is the ESR.



Effective Series Resistance E
Resistive component of a capacitor’s equivalent circuit, as modelled as an ideal capacitor in series with a resistor and inductor, resistor value is the ESR.



Electrically Controlled Birefringence E
Controller of optically anisotropic materials, which are birefringent, an optical property of materials with a refractive index dependent on the polarization and propagation direction of a light source.



Electrically Controlled Birefringence E
Controller of optically anisotropic materials, which are birefringent, an optical property of materials with a refractive index dependent on the polarization and propagation direction of a light source.



Electrically Controlled Birefringence E
Controller of optically anisotropic materials, which are birefringent, an optical property of materials with a refractive index dependent on the polarization and propagation direction of a light source.



Electrically Controlled Birefringence E
Controller of optically anisotropic materials, which are birefringent, an optical property of materials with a refractive index dependent on the polarization and propagation direction of a light source.



Electrically Controlled Birefringence E
Controller of optically anisotropic materials, which are birefringent, an optical property of materials with a refractive index dependent on the polarization and propagation direction of a light source.



Electricity E
Physical phenomena arising from electrons moving from a higher to lower potential level within an atom, providing electrical energy and is the science of the behaviour of electrons and protons through a conducting medium, the presence and flow of electric charge, lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, power generation and transmission and electromagnetic radiation.

Discovered by Benjamin Franklin, 1752




Electricity E
Physical phenomena arising from electrons moving from a higher to lower potential level within an atom, providing electrical energy and is the science of the behaviour of electrons and protons through a conducting medium, the presence and flow of electric charge, lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, power generation and transmission and electromagnetic radiation.

Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1752




Electricity E
Physical phenomena arising from electrons moving from a higher to lower potential level within an atom, providing electrical energy and is the science of the behaviour of electrons and protons through a conducting medium, the presence and flow of electric charge, lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, power generation and transmission and electromagnetic radiation.

Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1752




Electricity E
Physical phenomena arising from electrons moving from a higher to lower potential level within an atom, providing electrical energy and is the science of the behaviour of electrons and protons through a conducting medium, the presence and flow of electric charge, lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, power generation and transmission and electromagnetic radiation.

Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1752




Electricity E
Physical phenomena arising from electrons moving from a higher to lower potential level within an atom, providing electrical energy and is the science of the behaviour of electrons and protons through a conducting medium, the presence and flow of electric charge, lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, power generation and transmission and electromagnetic radiation.

Discovered by
Benjamin Franklin, 1752




Electro-Absorption Modulator E
Semiconductor device that is used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage, taking advantage of the “Franz-Keldysh” effect, which changes the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, in turn changing the bandgap energy.



Electro-Absorption Modulator E
Semiconductor device that is used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage, taking advantage of the “Franz-Keldysh” effect, which changes the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, in turn changing the bandgap energy.



Electro-Absorption Modulator E
Semiconductor device that is used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage, taking advantage of the “Franz-Keldysh” effect, which changes the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, in turn changing the bandgap energy.



Electro-Absorption Modulator E
Semiconductor device that is used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage, taking advantage of the “Franz-Keldysh” effect, which changes the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, in turn changing the bandgap energy.



Electro-Absorption Modulator E
Semiconductor device that is used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage, taking advantage of the “Franz-Keldysh” effect, which changes the absorption spectrum caused by an applied electric field, in turn changing the bandgap energy.



ElectroMotive Force E
Measured in volts, V, it is the force or electrical pressure that has the potential to cause electron flow in a circuit, also called voltage, potential difference or difference of potential.

Discovered by Michael Faraday, 1830




ElectroMotive Force E
Measured in volts, V, it is the force or electrical pressure that has the potential to cause electron flow in a circuit, also called voltage, potential difference or difference of potential.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1830




ElectroMotive Force E
Measured in volts, V, it is the force or electrical pressure that has the potential to cause electron flow in a circuit, also called voltage, potential difference or difference of potential.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1830




ElectroMotive Force E
Measured in volts, V, it is the force or electrical pressure that has the potential to cause electron flow in a circuit, also called voltage, potential difference or difference of potential.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1830




ElectroMotive Force E
Measured in volts, V, it is the force or electrical pressure that has the potential to cause electron flow in a circuit, also called voltage, potential difference or difference of potential.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1830




Energy Harvesting E
Known as power harvesting or energy scavenging, it is the process in which energy is captured from an environment and converted into usable electric power which allows for electronics to operate where there is no conventional power source and enabling the device to be self-sufficient which would generally include circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, manage power, filtration, regulation, remote monitoring and protection. Power source possibilities include light captured by photovoltaic cells, vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element, temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator, radio energy captured by an antenna and even biochemical energy from living cells by extracting energy from blood sugar.



Energy Harvesting E
Known as power harvesting or energy scavenging, it is the process in which energy is captured from an environment and converted into usable electric power which allows for electronics to operate where there is no conventional power source and enabling the device to be self-sufficient which would generally include circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, manage power, filtration, regulation, remote monitoring and protection. Power source possibilities include light captured by photovoltaic cells, vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element, temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator, radio energy captured by an antenna and even biochemical energy from living cells by extracting energy from blood sugar.



Energy Harvesting E
Known as power harvesting or energy scavenging, it is the process in which energy is captured from an environment and converted into usable electric power which allows for electronics to operate where there is no conventional power source and enabling the device to be self-sufficient which would generally include circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, manage power, filtration, regulation, remote monitoring and protection. Power source possibilities include light captured by photovoltaic cells, vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element, temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator, radio energy captured by an antenna and even biochemical energy from living cells by extracting energy from blood sugar.



Energy Harvesting E
Known as power harvesting or energy scavenging, it is the process in which energy is captured from an environment and converted into usable electric power which allows for electronics to operate where there is no conventional power source and enabling the device to be self-sufficient which would generally include circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, manage power, filtration, regulation, remote monitoring and protection. Power source possibilities include light captured by photovoltaic cells, vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element, temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator, radio energy captured by an antenna and even biochemical energy from living cells by extracting energy from blood sugar.



Energy Harvesting E
Known as power harvesting or energy scavenging, it is the process in which energy is captured from an environment and converted into usable electric power which allows for electronics to operate where there is no conventional power source and enabling the device to be self-sufficient which would generally include circuitry to charge an energy storage cell, manage power, filtration, regulation, remote monitoring and protection. Power source possibilities include light captured by photovoltaic cells, vibration or pressure captured by a piezoelectric element, temperature differentials captured by a thermo-electric generator, radio energy captured by an antenna and even biochemical energy from living cells by extracting energy from blood sugar.



Equivalent Series (L) Inductance E
Basic electronic or electrical design, theoretically treat components as ideal devices, whereby the physical components are far from being ideal as they are connected to circuits through conductive leads and paths, which contain the parasitic four passive characteristics of: Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance and Memristivity. The balance and net positions of the components and device within a circuit, must consider these elements when improving efficiency, longevity and performance. Industry deals with these inherent differences in circuit analysis by using lumped element models to express each physical component as a combination of an ideal component and a small inductor in series, which is a passive value equal to that present within a non-ideal, physical device.



Equivalent Series (L) Inductance E
Basic electronic or electrical design, theoretically treat components as ideal devices, whereby the physical components are far from being ideal as they are connected to circuits through conductive leads and paths, which contain the parasitic four passive characteristics of: Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance and Memristivity. The balance and net positions of the components and device within a circuit, must consider these elements when improving efficiency, longevity and performance. Industry deals with these inherent differences in circuit analysis by using lumped element models to express each physical component as a combination of an ideal component and a small inductor in series, which is a passive value equal to that present within a non-ideal, physical device.



Equivalent Series (L) Inductance E
Basic electronic or electrical design, theoretically treat components as ideal devices, whereby the physical components are far from being ideal as they are connected to circuits through conductive leads and paths, which contain the parasitic four passive characteristics of: Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance and Memristivity. The balance and net positions of the components and device within a circuit, must consider these elements when improving efficiency, longevity and performance. Industry deals with these inherent differences in circuit analysis by using lumped element models to express each physical component as a combination of an ideal component and a small inductor in series, which is a passive value equal to that present within a non-ideal, physical device.



Equivalent Series (L) Inductance E
Basic electronic or electrical design, theoretically treat components as ideal devices, whereby the physical components are far from being ideal as they are connected to circuits through conductive leads and paths, which contain the parasitic four passive characteristics of: Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance and Memristivity. The balance and net positions of the components and device within a circuit, must consider these elements when improving efficiency, longevity and performance. Industry deals with these inherent differences in circuit analysis by using lumped element models to express each physical component as a combination of an ideal component and a small inductor in series, which is a passive value equal to that present within a non-ideal, physical device.



Equivalent Series (L) Inductance E
Basic electronic or electrical design, theoretically treat components as ideal devices, whereby the physical components are far from being ideal as they are connected to circuits through conductive leads and paths, which contain the parasitic four passive characteristics of: Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance and Memristivity. The balance and net positions of the components and device within a circuit, must consider these elements when improving efficiency, longevity and performance. Industry deals with these inherent differences in circuit analysis by using lumped element models to express each physical component as a combination of an ideal component and a small inductor in series, which is a passive value equal to that present within a non-ideal, physical device.



ESD Protection E
Devices and treatment added to the input and output pins on a semiconductor or device, that protects the internal circuitry from the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge.



ESD Protection E
Devices and treatment added to the input and output pins on a semiconductor or device, that protects the internal circuitry from the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge.



ESD Protection E
Devices and treatment added to the input and output pins on a semiconductor or device, that protects the internal circuitry from the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge.



ESD Protection E
Devices and treatment added to the input and output pins on a semiconductor or device, that protects the internal circuitry from the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge.



ESD Protection E
Devices and treatment added to the input and output pins on a semiconductor or device, that protects the internal circuitry from the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge.



Ethernet E
Family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames. The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms and are known as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Introduced in 1980, it became standardised in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 and has replaced token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 100 Gbit/s.



Ethernet E
Family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames. The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms and are known as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Introduced in 1980, it became standardised in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 and has replaced token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 100 Gbit/s.



Ethernet E
Family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames. The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms and are known as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Introduced in 1980, it became standardised in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 and has replaced token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 100 Gbit/s.



Ethernet E
Family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames. The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms and are known as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Introduced in 1980, it became standardised in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 and has replaced token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 100 Gbit/s.



Ethernet E
Family of network protocols based on asynchronous frames. The Ethernet framing structure provides a flexible payload container with basic addressing and error detection mechanisms and are known as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Introduced in 1980, it became standardised in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 and has replaced token ring, FDDI and ARCNET. Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 Mbit/s to the latest 100 Gbit/s.



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Farad F
Farad, F

SI Derived Unit

Capacitance

SI Derived Quantity

kg−1·m−2·s4·A2

SI Base Expression

One farad of capacitance will store one coulomb of charge when the charging force is one volt. Since the farad is a very large unit, capacitance will more commonly expressed as microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF) values.

Named after Michael Faraday




Farad F
Farad, F

SI Derived Unit

Capacitance

SI Derived Quantity

kg−1·m−2·s4·A2

SI Base Expression

One farad of capacitance will store one coulomb of charge when the charging force is one volt. Since the farad is a very large unit, capacitance will more commonly expressed as microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF) values.

Named after
Michael Faraday




Farad F
Farad, F

SI Derived Unit

Capacitance

SI Derived Quantity

kg−1·m−2·s4·A2

SI Base Expression

One farad of capacitance will store one coulomb of charge when the charging force is one volt. Since the farad is a very large unit, capacitance will more commonly expressed as microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF) values.

Named after
Michael Faraday




Farad F
Farad, F

SI Derived Unit

Capacitance

SI Derived Quantity

kg−1·m−2·s4·A2

SI Base Expression

One farad of capacitance will store one coulomb of charge when the charging force is one volt. Since the farad is a very large unit, capacitance will more commonly expressed as microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF) values.

Named after
Michael Faraday




Farad F
Farad, F

SI Derived Unit

Capacitance

SI Derived Quantity

kg−1·m−2·s4·A2

SI Base Expression

One farad of capacitance will store one coulomb of charge when the charging force is one volt. Since the farad is a very large unit, capacitance will more commonly expressed as microfarad (uF) or picofarad (pF) values.

Named after
Michael Faraday




Fault Blanking F
Function that that when chosen, will ignore a fault for a predetermined period, acknowledging the fault condition and muting the alert.



Fault Blanking F
Function that that when chosen, will ignore a fault for a predetermined period, acknowledging the fault condition and muting the alert.



Fault Blanking F
Function that that when chosen, will ignore a fault for a predetermined period, acknowledging the fault condition and muting the alert.



Fault Blanking F
Function that that when chosen, will ignore a fault for a predetermined period, acknowledging the fault condition and muting the alert.



Fault Blanking F
Function that that when chosen, will ignore a fault for a predetermined period, acknowledging the fault condition and muting the alert.



Filter F
Circuit filtration design will allow a specific frequency range to pass whilst rejecting others and performing additional signal processing functions, also utilising the rejected frequencies, to improve quality of signal. Filter designs include passive, active, analogue or digital, high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, all-pass, discrete or continuous-over-time, linear or non-linear.

Invented by George Campbell, 1910




Filter F
Circuit filtration design will allow a specific frequency range to pass whilst rejecting others and performing additional signal processing functions, also utilising the rejected frequencies, to improve quality of signal. Filter designs include passive, active, analogue or digital, high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, all-pass, discrete or continuous-over-time, linear or non-linear.

Invented by
George Campbell, 1910




Filter F
Circuit filtration design will allow a specific frequency range to pass whilst rejecting others and performing additional signal processing functions, also utilising the rejected frequencies, to improve quality of signal. Filter designs include passive, active, analogue or digital, high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, all-pass, discrete or continuous-over-time, linear or non-linear.

Invented by
George Campbell, 1910




Filter F
Circuit filtration design will allow a specific frequency range to pass whilst rejecting others and performing additional signal processing functions, also utilising the rejected frequencies, to improve quality of signal. Filter designs include passive, active, analogue or digital, high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, all-pass, discrete or continuous-over-time, linear or non-linear.

Invented by
George Campbell, 1910




Filter F
Circuit filtration design will allow a specific frequency range to pass whilst rejecting others and performing additional signal processing functions, also utilising the rejected frequencies, to improve quality of signal. Filter designs include passive, active, analogue or digital, high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, all-pass, discrete or continuous-over-time, linear or non-linear.

Invented by
George Campbell, 1910




Firmware F
Software encoded into a ROM, EPROM, EEPROM can provide initial parameters on a system restart or power outage. The ROM BIOS of computers contain basic functions of a device to provide services to higher-level software, yet firmware of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Invented by Ascher Opler, 1967




Firmware F
Software encoded into a ROM, EPROM, EEPROM can provide initial parameters on a system restart or power outage. The ROM BIOS of computers contain basic functions of a device to provide services to higher-level software, yet firmware of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Invented by
Ascher Opler, 1967




Firmware F
Software encoded into a ROM, EPROM, EEPROM can provide initial parameters on a system restart or power outage. The ROM BIOS of computers contain basic functions of a device to provide services to higher-level software, yet firmware of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Invented by
Ascher Opler, 1967




Firmware F
Software encoded into a ROM, EPROM, EEPROM can provide initial parameters on a system restart or power outage. The ROM BIOS of computers contain basic functions of a device to provide services to higher-level software, yet firmware of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Invented by
Ascher Opler, 1967




Firmware F
Software encoded into a ROM, EPROM, EEPROM can provide initial parameters on a system restart or power outage. The ROM BIOS of computers contain basic functions of a device to provide services to higher-level software, yet firmware of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Invented by
Ascher Opler, 1967




Floating F
Signals, inputs and outputs are said to be “floating” if there is no connection to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source.



Floating F
Signals, inputs and outputs are said to be “floating” if there is no connection to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source.



Floating F
Signals, inputs and outputs are said to be “floating” if there is no connection to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source.



Floating F
Signals, inputs and outputs are said to be “floating” if there is no connection to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source.



Floating F
Signals, inputs and outputs are said to be “floating” if there is no connection to any voltage supply, ground, or ground-referenced signal source.



Flyback Induction F
Voltage spikes, witnessed across inductive loads when the power is removed and the magnetic field collapses is a likely event of flyback induction. The current flowing through the inductor cannot change instantly as it is limited by the time constant of the inductor and to eliminate flyback, diodes are required across an inductive load. Known as a flyback, snubber, freewheeling, suppressor, suppression, clamp or catch diode, the perfect diode selection would include a large peak forward current capacity with low forward voltage drop and a reverse breakdown voltage matched to the power supply of the inductor. Schottky diodes have a low forward voltage drop of 0.2V, and are very responsive to reverse bias. When used with a DC coil, a low-value resistor, placed in series with the diode, will dissipate the coil energy faster.



Flyback Induction F
Voltage spikes, witnessed across inductive loads when the power is removed and the magnetic field collapses is a likely event of flyback induction. The current flowing through the inductor cannot change instantly as it is limited by the time constant of the inductor and to eliminate flyback, diodes are required across an inductive load. Known as a flyback, snubber, freewheeling, suppressor, suppression, clamp or catch diode, the perfect diode selection would include a large peak forward current capacity with low forward voltage drop and a reverse breakdown voltage matched to the power supply of the inductor. Schottky diodes have a low forward voltage drop of 0.2V, and are very responsive to reverse bias. When used with a DC coil, a low-value resistor, placed in series with the diode, will dissipate the coil energy faster.



Flyback Induction F
Voltage spikes, witnessed across inductive loads when the power is removed and the magnetic field collapses is a likely event of flyback induction. The current flowing through the inductor cannot change instantly as it is limited by the time constant of the inductor and to eliminate flyback, diodes are required across an inductive load. Known as a flyback, snubber, freewheeling, suppressor, suppression, clamp or catch diode, the perfect diode selection would include a large peak forward current capacity with low forward voltage drop and a reverse breakdown voltage matched to the power supply of the inductor. Schottky diodes have a low forward voltage drop of 0.2V, and are very responsive to reverse bias. When used with a DC coil, a low-value resistor, placed in series with the diode, will dissipate the coil energy faster.



Flyback Induction F
Voltage spikes, witnessed across inductive loads when the power is removed and the magnetic field collapses is a likely event of flyback induction. The current flowing through the inductor cannot change instantly as it is limited by the time constant of the inductor and to eliminate flyback, diodes are required across an inductive load. Known as a flyback, snubber, freewheeling, suppressor, suppression, clamp or catch diode, the perfect diode selection would include a large peak forward current capacity with low forward voltage drop and a reverse breakdown voltage matched to the power supply of the inductor. Schottky diodes have a low forward voltage drop of 0.2V, and are very responsive to reverse bias. When used with a DC coil, a low-value resistor, placed in series with the diode, will dissipate the coil energy faster.



Flyback Induction F
Voltage spikes, witnessed across inductive loads when the power is removed and the magnetic field collapses is a likely event of flyback induction. The current flowing through the inductor cannot change instantly as it is limited by the time constant of the inductor and to eliminate flyback, diodes are required across an inductive load. Known as a flyback, snubber, freewheeling, suppressor, suppression, clamp or catch diode, the perfect diode selection would include a large peak forward current capacity with low forward voltage drop and a reverse breakdown voltage matched to the power supply of the inductor. Schottky diodes have a low forward voltage drop of 0.2V, and are very responsive to reverse bias. When used with a DC coil, a low-value resistor, placed in series with the diode, will dissipate the coil energy faster.



Footprint F
Physical areas pre-specified and used by a component, include a pad pattern for a PCB layout and include layers of component identification, pin size and body clearance.

Invented by Paul Eisler, 1943




Footprint F
Physical areas pre-specified and used by a component, include a pad pattern for a PCB layout and include layers of component identification, pin size and body clearance.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Footprint F
Physical areas pre-specified and used by a component, include a pad pattern for a PCB layout and include layers of component identification, pin size and body clearance.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Footprint F
Physical areas pre-specified and used by a component, include a pad pattern for a PCB layout and include layers of component identification, pin size and body clearance.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Footprint F
Physical areas pre-specified and used by a component, include a pad pattern for a PCB layout and include layers of component identification, pin size and body clearance.

Invented by
Paul Eisler, 1943




Forward Bias F
Voltage potential applied to a solid-state P-N junction, resulting in current flow when the junction has become saturated.



Forward Bias F
Voltage potential applied to a solid-state P-N junction, resulting in current flow when the junction has become saturated.



Forward Bias F
Voltage potential applied to a solid-state P-N junction, resulting in current flow when the junction has become saturated.



Forward Bias F
Voltage potential applied to a solid-state P-N junction, resulting in current flow when the junction has become saturated.



Forward Bias F
Voltage potential applied to a solid-state P-N junction, resulting in current flow when the junction has become saturated.



Forward Converter F
Power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to a secondary winding of a transformer, when transistor switching is required.



Forward Converter F
Power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to a secondary winding of a transformer, when transistor switching is required.



Forward Converter F
Power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to a secondary winding of a transformer, when transistor switching is required.



Forward Converter F
Power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to a secondary winding of a transformer, when transistor switching is required.



Forward Converter F
Power-supply switching circuit that transfers energy to a secondary winding of a transformer, when transistor switching is required.



Frequency F
Measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of cycles, per second for any periodic waveform shape as in sinusoidal, square or triangular.



Frequency F
Measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of cycles, per second for any periodic waveform shape as in sinusoidal, square or triangular.



Frequency F
Measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of cycles, per second for any periodic waveform shape as in sinusoidal, square or triangular.



Frequency F
Measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of cycles, per second for any periodic waveform shape as in sinusoidal, square or triangular.



Frequency F
Measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of cycles, per second for any periodic waveform shape as in sinusoidal, square or triangular.



Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum F
Transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal and changes frequency, hopping between a wide band of frequencies which are specified by an algorithm known to the receiving system.



Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum F
Transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal and changes frequency, hopping between a wide band of frequencies which are specified by an algorithm known to the receiving system.



Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum F
Transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal and changes frequency, hopping between a wide band of frequencies which are specified by an algorithm known to the receiving system.



Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum F
Transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal and changes frequency, hopping between a wide band of frequencies which are specified by an algorithm known to the receiving system.



Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum F
Transmission technology in which the data signal is modulated by a narrowband carrier signal and changes frequency, hopping between a wide band of frequencies which are specified by an algorithm known to the receiving system.



Frequency Modulation F
Encoding of information in a carrier wave by shifting the carrier’s frequency through a defined set of frequencies, representing digits. This instantaneous variation in frequency of the wave, is in direct contrast with amplitude modulation, which modifies the amplitude of the carrier wave, and maintains a constant frequency.

Invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong, 1933




Frequency Modulation F
Encoding of information in a carrier wave by shifting the carrier’s frequency through a defined set of frequencies, representing digits. This instantaneous variation in frequency of the wave, is in direct contrast with amplitude modulation, which modifies the amplitude of the carrier wave, and maintains a constant frequency.

Invented by
Edwin Howard Armstrong, 1933




Frequency Modulation F
Encoding of information in a carrier wave by shifting the carrier’s frequency through a defined set of frequencies, representing digits. This instantaneous variation in frequency of the wave, is in direct contrast with amplitude modulation, which modifies the amplitude of the carrier wave, and maintains a constant frequency.

Invented by
Edwin Howard Armstrong, 1933




Frequency Modulation F
Encoding of information in a carrier wave by shifting the carrier’s frequency through a defined set of frequencies, representing digits. This instantaneous variation in frequency of the wave, is in direct contrast with amplitude modulation, which modifies the amplitude of the carrier wave, and maintains a constant frequency.

Invented by
Edwin Howard Armstrong, 1933




Frequency Modulation F
Encoding of information in a carrier wave by shifting the carrier’s frequency through a defined set of frequencies, representing digits. This instantaneous variation in frequency of the wave, is in direct contrast with amplitude modulation, which modifies the amplitude of the carrier wave, and maintains a constant frequency.

Invented by
Edwin Howard Armstrong, 1933




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Gain G
Determination of the amount of amplification accomplished by a circuit as in a gain of three means the output is scaled up to three times the amplitude of the input.



Gain G
Determination of the amount of amplification accomplished by a circuit as in a gain of three means the output is scaled up to three times the amplitude of the input.



Gain G
Determination of the amount of amplification accomplished by a circuit as in a gain of three means the output is scaled up to three times the amplitude of the input.



Gain G
Determination of the amount of amplification accomplished by a circuit as in a gain of three means the output is scaled up to three times the amplitude of the input.



Gain G
Determination of the amount of amplification accomplished by a circuit as in a gain of three means the output is scaled up to three times the amplitude of the input.



Gallium Arsenide G
GaAs, is a semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, Photo Cells, Avalanche Junctions and for high-speed electronic devices.



Gallium Arsenide G
GaAs, is a semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, Photo Cells, Avalanche Junctions and for high-speed electronic devices.



Gallium Arsenide G
GaAs, is a semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, Photo Cells, Avalanche Junctions and for high-speed electronic devices.



Gallium Arsenide G
GaAs, is a semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, Photo Cells, Avalanche Junctions and for high-speed electronic devices.



Gallium Arsenide G
GaAs, is a semiconductor material used for optoelectronic products such as LEDs, Photo Cells, Avalanche Junctions and for high-speed electronic devices.



Gamma Correction G
Applying function that transform the brightness or luminance values, gamma functions are predominantly nonlinear, are monotonic and designed to affect highlights, mid-tones, and shadows separately. Commonly applied to make light-emitting devices, as in displays, match the brightness curve of the human eye.



Gamma Correction G
Applying function that transform the brightness or luminance values, gamma functions are predominantly nonlinear, are monotonic and designed to affect highlights, mid-tones, and shadows separately. Commonly applied to make light-emitting devices, as in displays, match the brightness curve of the human eye.



Gamma Correction G
Applying function that transform the brightness or luminance values, gamma functions are predominantly nonlinear, are monotonic and designed to affect highlights, mid-tones, and shadows separately. Commonly applied to make light-emitting devices, as in displays, match the brightness curve of the human eye.



Gamma Correction G
Applying function that transform the brightness or luminance values, gamma functions are predominantly nonlinear, are monotonic and designed to affect highlights, mid-tones, and shadows separately. Commonly applied to make light-emitting devices, as in displays, match the brightness curve of the human eye.



Gamma Correction G
Applying function that transform the brightness or luminance values, gamma functions are predominantly nonlinear, are monotonic and designed to affect highlights, mid-tones, and shadows separately. Commonly applied to make light-emitting devices, as in displays, match the brightness curve of the human eye.



Gate Logic G
Logical states created by transistor or relay logic and includes the following gates: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, BUFFER & INVERTER.


Gate AND
This is the result of a logical device that states if two or more inputs equal 1, then give a value of 1, if not, then give a value of 0.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NAND
Stands for NOT-AND. Gives an inverted output of AND logic, false inputs returns true.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate OR
Generates a logic 1 if any one of its two or more inputs are 1.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NOR
Stands for NOT-OR. Gives an inverted output of OR logic.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XNOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate BUFFER
To isolate logic gates from each other or to drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. The “Buffer” performs no inversion or decision making capabilities but instead produces an output which exactly matches that of its input.
Input (0) Output (0) Input (1) Output (1)
Gate INVERTER
This gate, also known as a NOT, is a logic gate with one input signal and sends an output, of 1 if it receives an input of 0 or Input of 1 with an output of 0.
Input (0) Output (1) Input (1) Output (0)

Gate Logic G
Logical states created by transistor or relay logic and includes the following gates: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, BUFFER & INVERTER.


Gate AND
This is the result of a logical device that states if two or more inputs equal 1, then give a value of 1, if not, then give a value of 0.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NAND
Stands for NOT-AND. Gives an inverted output of AND logic, false inputs returns true.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate OR
Generates a logic 1 if any one of its two or more inputs are 1.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NOR
Stands for NOT-OR. Gives an inverted output of OR logic.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XNOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate BUFFER
To isolate logic gates from each other or to drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. The “Buffer” performs no inversion or decision making capabilities but instead produces an output which exactly matches that of its input.
Input (0) Output (0) Input (1) Output (1)
Gate INVERTER
This gate, also known as a NOT, is a logic gate with one input signal and sends an output, of 1 if it receives an input of 0 or Input of 1 with an output of 0.
Input (0) Output (1) Input (1) Output (0)

Gate Logic G
Logical states created by transistor or relay logic and includes the following gates: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, BUFFER & INVERTER.


Gate AND
This is the result of a logical device that states if two or more inputs equal 1, then give a value of 1, if not, then give a value of 0.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NAND
Stands for NOT-AND. Gives an inverted output of AND logic, false inputs returns true.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate OR
Generates a logic 1 if any one of its two or more inputs are 1.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NOR
Stands for NOT-OR. Gives an inverted output of OR logic.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XNOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate BUFFER
To isolate logic gates from each other or to drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. The “Buffer” performs no inversion or decision making capabilities but instead produces an output which exactly matches that of its input.
Input (0) Output (0) Input (1) Output (1)
Gate INVERTER
This gate, also known as a NOT, is a logic gate with one input signal and sends an output, of 1 if it receives an input of 0 or Input of 1 with an output of 0.
Input (0) Output (1) Input (1) Output (0)

Gate Logic G
Logical states created by transistor or relay logic and includes the following gates: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, BUFFER & INVERTER.


Gate AND
This is the result of a logical device that states if two or more inputs equal 1, then give a value of 1, if not, then give a value of 0.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NAND
Stands for NOT-AND. Gives an inverted output of AND logic, false inputs returns true.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate OR
Generates a logic 1 if any one of its two or more inputs are 1.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NOR
Stands for NOT-OR. Gives an inverted output of OR logic.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XNOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate BUFFER
To isolate logic gates from each other or to drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. The “Buffer” performs no inversion or decision making capabilities but instead produces an output which exactly matches that of its input.
Input (0) Output (0) Input (1) Output (1)
Gate INVERTER
This gate, also known as a NOT, is a logic gate with one input signal and sends an output, of 1 if it receives an input of 0 or Input of 1 with an output of 0.
Input (0) Output (1) Input (1) Output (0)

Gate Logic G
Logical states created by transistor or relay logic and includes the following gates: AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR, BUFFER & INVERTER.


Gate AND
This is the result of a logical device that states if two or more inputs equal 1, then give a value of 1, if not, then give a value of 0.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NAND
Stands for NOT-AND. Gives an inverted output of AND logic, false inputs returns true.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate OR
Generates a logic 1 if any one of its two or more inputs are 1.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate NOR
Stands for NOT-OR. Gives an inverted output of OR logic.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (0)
Gate XNOR
Known as an Exclusive OR gate, it has an output of true, only when exactly one of its inputs are true. If both inputs are false, or if both of its inputs are true, then the output of the gate is false.
Input A (0) Input B (0) Output (1)
Input A (0) Input B (1) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (0) Output (0)
Input A (1) Input B (1) Output (1)
Gate BUFFER
To isolate logic gates from each other or to drive or switch higher than normal loads, such as relays, solenoids and lamps without the need for inversion. The “Buffer” performs no inversion or decision making capabilities but instead produces an output which exactly matches that of its input.
Input (0) Output (0)
Input (1) Output (1)
Gate INVERTER
This gate, also known as a NOT, is a logic gate with one input signal and sends an output, of 1 if it receives an input of 0 or Input of 1 with an output of 0.
Input (0) Output (1)
Input (1) Output (0)

Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying G
A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated. This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. Bluetooth uses GFSK.



Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying G
A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated. This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. Bluetooth uses GFSK.



Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying G
A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated. This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. Bluetooth uses GFSK.



Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying G
A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated. This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. Bluetooth uses GFSK.



Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying G
A type of FSK modulation which uses a Gaussian filter to shape the pulses before they are modulated. This reduces the spectral bandwidth and out-of-band spectrum, to meet adjacent-channel power rejection requirements. Bluetooth uses GFSK.



Gerber File G
Named after Gerber Scientific Corp., the original vector plotter manufacturer, this term is used to signify a set of data files that define the top, bottom, inner layers, silkscreen, solder masks and a drill list, used to make a printed circuit board.

Invented by Joseph Gerber, 1980




Gerber File G
Named after Gerber Scientific Corp., the original vector plotter manufacturer, this term is used to signify a set of data files that define the top, bottom, inner layers, silkscreen, solder masks and a drill list, used to make a printed circuit board.

Invented by
Joseph Gerber, 1980




Gerber File G
Named after Gerber Scientific Corp., the original vector plotter manufacturer, this term is used to signify a set of data files that define the top, bottom, inner layers, silkscreen, solder masks and a drill list, used to make a printed circuit board.

Invented by
Joseph Gerber, 1980




Gerber File G
Named after Gerber Scientific Corp., the original vector plotter manufacturer, this term is used to signify a set of data files that define the top, bottom, inner layers, silkscreen, solder masks and a drill list, used to make a printed circuit board.

Invented by
Joseph Gerber, 1980




Gerber File G
Named after Gerber Scientific Corp., the original vector plotter manufacturer, this term is used to signify a set of data files that define the top, bottom, inner layers, silkscreen, solder masks and a drill list, used to make a printed circuit board.

Invented by
Joseph Gerber, 1980




Gray G
Gray, Gy

SI Derived Unit

Absorbed Dose, Specific Energy (Imparted), Kerma

SI Derived Quantity

m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter. It is used as a measure of absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), and kerma (an acronym for “kinetic energy released per unit mass”). It is a physical quantity, and does not take into account any biological context. Unlike the pre-1971 non-SI roentgen unit of radiation exposure, the Gray when used for absorbed dose is defined independently of any target material. When measuring kerma the reference target material must be defined explicitly, usually as dry air at standard temperature and pressure.

Named after Louis Harold Gray




Gray G
Gray, Gy

SI Derived Unit

Absorbed Dose, Specific Energy (Imparted), Kerma

SI Derived Quantity

m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter. It is used as a measure of absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), and kerma (an acronym for “kinetic energy released per unit mass”). It is a physical quantity, and does not take into account any biological context. Unlike the pre-1971 non-SI roentgen unit of radiation exposure, the Gray when used for absorbed dose is defined independently of any target material. When measuring kerma the reference target material must be defined explicitly, usually as dry air at standard temperature and pressure.

Named after
Louis Harold Gray




Gray G
Gray, Gy

SI Derived Unit

Absorbed Dose, Specific Energy (Imparted), Kerma

SI Derived Quantity

m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter. It is used as a measure of absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), and kerma (an acronym for “kinetic energy released per unit mass”). It is a physical quantity, and does not take into account any biological context. Unlike the pre-1971 non-SI roentgen unit of radiation exposure, the Gray when used for absorbed dose is defined independently of any target material. When measuring kerma the reference target material must be defined explicitly, usually as dry air at standard temperature and pressure.

Named after
Louis Harold Gray




Gray G
Gray, Gy

SI Derived Unit

Absorbed Dose, Specific Energy (Imparted), Kerma

SI Derived Quantity

m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter. It is used as a measure of absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), and kerma (an acronym for “kinetic energy released per unit mass”). It is a physical quantity, and does not take into account any biological context. Unlike the pre-1971 non-SI roentgen unit of radiation exposure, the Gray when used for absorbed dose is defined independently of any target material. When measuring kerma the reference target material must be defined explicitly, usually as dry air at standard temperature and pressure.

Named after
Louis Harold Gray




Gray G
Gray, Gy

SI Derived Unit

Absorbed Dose, Specific Energy (Imparted), Kerma

SI Derived Quantity

m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This unit is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter. It is used as a measure of absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), and kerma (an acronym for “kinetic energy released per unit mass”). It is a physical quantity, and does not take into account any biological context. Unlike the pre-1971 non-SI roentgen unit of radiation exposure, the Gray when used for absorbed dose is defined independently of any target material. When measuring kerma the reference target material must be defined explicitly, usually as dry air at standard temperature and pressure.

Named after
Louis Harold Gray




Ground G
Common return path for current in an electrical circuit which serves as a reference point for measuring all other potentials in a circuit. Generally assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth. Other than earth references may be used such as the chassis of an automobile (chassis ground) or some arbitrary point in a circuit (circuit ground) like the negative side of the power source.



Ground G
Common return path for current in an electrical circuit which serves as a reference point for measuring all other potentials in a circuit. Generally assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth. Other than earth references may be used such as the chassis of an automobile (chassis ground) or some arbitrary point in a circuit (circuit ground) like the negative side of the power source.



Ground G
Common return path for current in an electrical circuit which serves as a reference point for measuring all other potentials in a circuit. Generally assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth. Other than earth references may be used such as the chassis of an automobile (chassis ground) or some arbitrary point in a circuit (circuit ground) like the negative side of the power source.



Ground G
Common return path for current in an electrical circuit which serves as a reference point for measuring all other potentials in a circuit. Generally assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth. Other than earth references may be used such as the chassis of an automobile (chassis ground) or some arbitrary point in a circuit (circuit ground) like the negative side of the power source.



Ground G
Common return path for current in an electrical circuit which serves as a reference point for measuring all other potentials in a circuit. Generally assumed to be at zero potential with respect to the earth. Other than earth references may be used such as the chassis of an automobile (chassis ground) or some arbitrary point in a circuit (circuit ground) like the negative side of the power source.



H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Ω
H
H Bridge H
Circuit diagram which resembles the letter “H” with the load as the horizontal line, connected between two pairs of intersecting lines. Very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the “vertical” branches of the “H” to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.



H Bridge H
Circuit diagram which resembles the letter “H” with the load as the horizontal line, connected between two pairs of intersecting lines. Very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the “vertical” branches of the “H” to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.



H Bridge H
Circuit diagram which resembles the letter “H” with the load as the horizontal line, connected between two pairs of intersecting lines. Very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the “vertical” branches of the “H” to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.



H Bridge H
Circuit diagram which resembles the letter “H” with the load as the horizontal line, connected between two pairs of intersecting lines. Very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the “vertical” branches of the “H” to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.



H Bridge H
Circuit diagram which resembles the letter “H” with the load as the horizontal line, connected between two pairs of intersecting lines. Very common in DC motor-drive applications where switches are used in the “vertical” branches of the “H” to control the direction of current flow, and thus the rotational direction of the motor.



Highway Addressable Remote Transducer H
Communication mode used for the transmission of digital signals that are superimposed on the analogue signal of a 4–20mA current loop. The HART protocol is based on the phase continuous frequency shift keying (FSK) technique with Bit 0, modulated to a 2,200Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a 1,200Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of 1,200bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analogue current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal and the unique nature of this protocol enables simultaneous analogue and digital communication on the same wire.



Highway Addressable Remote Transducer H
Communication mode used for the transmission of digital signals that are superimposed on the analogue signal of a 4–20mA current loop. The HART protocol is based on the phase continuous frequency shift keying (FSK) technique with Bit 0, modulated to a 2,200Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a 1,200Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of 1,200bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analogue current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal and the unique nature of this protocol enables simultaneous analogue and digital communication on the same wire.



Highway Addressable Remote Transducer H
Communication mode used for the transmission of digital signals that are superimposed on the analogue signal of a 4–20mA current loop. The HART protocol is based on the phase continuous frequency shift keying (FSK) technique with Bit 0, modulated to a 2,200Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a 1,200Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of 1,200bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analogue current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal and the unique nature of this protocol enables simultaneous analogue and digital communication on the same wire.



Highway Addressable Remote Transducer H
Communication mode used for the transmission of digital signals that are superimposed on the analogue signal of a 4–20mA current loop. The HART protocol is based on the phase continuous frequency shift keying (FSK) technique with Bit 0, modulated to a 2,200Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a 1,200Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of 1,200bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analogue current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal and the unique nature of this protocol enables simultaneous analogue and digital communication on the same wire.



Highway Addressable Remote Transducer H
Communication mode used for the transmission of digital signals that are superimposed on the analogue signal of a 4–20mA current loop. The HART protocol is based on the phase continuous frequency shift keying (FSK) technique with Bit 0, modulated to a 2,200Hz sinusoidal signal, and bit 1 is modulated to a 1,200Hz sinusoidal signal with a baud rate of 1,200bps. These two frequencies can easily be superimposed on the analogue current-loop signal, which is in the range of DC to 10Hz, without affecting either signal and the unique nature of this protocol enables simultaneous analogue and digital communication on the same wire.



Henry H
Henry, H

SI Derived Unit

Inductance

SI Derived Quantity

kg · m2 · s−2 · A−2

SI Base Expression

This is the unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second.

Named after Joseph Henry




Henry H
Henry, H

SI Derived Unit

Inductance

SI Derived Quantity

kg · m2 · s−2 · A−2

SI Base Expression

This is the unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Henry H
Henry, H

SI Derived Unit

Inductance

SI Derived Quantity

kg · m2 · s−2 · A−2

SI Base Expression

This is the unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Henry H
Henry, H

SI Derived Unit

Inductance

SI Derived Quantity

kg · m2 · s−2 · A−2

SI Base Expression

This is the unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Henry H
Henry, H

SI Derived Unit

Inductance

SI Derived Quantity

kg · m2 · s−2 · A−2

SI Base Expression

This is the unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per second.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Hertz H
Hertz, Hz

SI Derived Unit

Frequency

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit of frequency is equal to cycles per second. In defining the second, “the standard to be employed is the transition between the hyperfine levels F = 4, M = 0 and F = 3, M = 0 of the ground state 2S1/2 of the caesium 133 atom, unperturbed by external fields, and that the frequency of this transition is assigned the value 9,192,631,770 hertz”, effectively defining the hertz and the second simultaneously.

Named after Heinrich Hertz




Hertz H
Hertz, Hz

SI Derived Unit

Frequency

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit of frequency is equal to cycles per second. In defining the second, “the standard to be employed is the transition between the hyperfine levels F = 4, M = 0 and F = 3, M = 0 of the ground state 2S1/2 of the caesium 133 atom, unperturbed by external fields, and that the frequency of this transition is assigned the value 9,192,631,770 hertz”, effectively defining the hertz and the second simultaneously.

Named after
Heinrich Hertz




Hertz H
Hertz, Hz

SI Derived Unit

Frequency

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit of frequency is equal to cycles per second. In defining the second, “the standard to be employed is the transition between the hyperfine levels F = 4, M = 0 and F = 3, M = 0 of the ground state 2S1/2 of the caesium 133 atom, unperturbed by external fields, and that the frequency of this transition is assigned the value 9,192,631,770 hertz”, effectively defining the hertz and the second simultaneously.

Named after
Heinrich Hertz




Hertz H
Hertz, Hz

SI Derived Unit

Frequency

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit of frequency is equal to cycles per second. In defining the second, “the standard to be employed is the transition between the hyperfine levels F = 4, M = 0 and F = 3, M = 0 of the ground state 2S1/2 of the caesium 133 atom, unperturbed by external fields, and that the frequency of this transition is assigned the value 9,192,631,770 hertz”, effectively defining the hertz and the second simultaneously.

Named after
Heinrich Hertz




Hertz H
Hertz, Hz

SI Derived Unit

Frequency

SI Derived Quantity

s-1

SI Base Expression

This unit of frequency is equal to cycles per second. In defining the second, “the standard to be employed is the transition between the hyperfine levels F = 4, M = 0 and F = 3, M = 0 of the ground state 2S1/2 of the caesium 133 atom, unperturbed by external fields, and that the frequency of this transition is assigned the value 9,192,631,770 hertz”, effectively defining the hertz and the second simultaneously.

Named after
Heinrich Hertz




Hyper Text Markup Language H
Standard language used to create web pages and with CSS and JavaScript, HTML is a key technology, used to create websites, web applications. The HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites as it allows for images and objects to be embedded and used to create interactive forms, create structured documents by denoting the structural architecture of text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links and quotes. Embedding scripts written languages as in JavaScript will affect the behaviour of HTML web pages as web browsers can refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.



Hyper Text Markup Language H
Standard language used to create web pages and with CSS and JavaScript, HTML is a key technology, used to create websites, web applications. The HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites as it allows for images and objects to be embedded and used to create interactive forms, create structured documents by denoting the structural architecture of text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links and quotes. Embedding scripts written languages as in JavaScript will affect the behaviour of HTML web pages as web browsers can refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.



Hyper Text Markup Language H
Standard language used to create web pages and with CSS and JavaScript, HTML is a key technology, used to create websites, web applications. The HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites as it allows for images and objects to be embedded and used to create interactive forms, create structured documents by denoting the structural architecture of text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links and quotes. Embedding scripts written languages as in JavaScript will affect the behaviour of HTML web pages as web browsers can refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.



Hyper Text Markup Language H
Standard language used to create web pages and with CSS and JavaScript, HTML is a key technology, used to create websites, web applications. The HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites as it allows for images and objects to be embedded and used to create interactive forms, create structured documents by denoting the structural architecture of text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links and quotes. Embedding scripts written languages as in JavaScript will affect the behaviour of HTML web pages as web browsers can refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.



Hyper Text Markup Language H
Standard language used to create web pages and with CSS and JavaScript, HTML is a key technology, used to create websites, web applications. The HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites as it allows for images and objects to be embedded and used to create interactive forms, create structured documents by denoting the structural architecture of text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links and quotes. Embedding scripts written languages as in JavaScript will affect the behaviour of HTML web pages as web browsers can refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.



Hyper Text Transport Protocol H
Structured text, using logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text, HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.



Hyper Text Transport Protocol H
Structured text, using logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text, HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.



Hyper Text Transport Protocol H
Structured text, using logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text, HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.



Hyper Text Transport Protocol H
Structured text, using logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text, HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.



Hyper Text Transport Protocol H
Structured text, using logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text, HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.



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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I
Organisation and sponsor of many electrical and electronic standards and are a technical professional association throughout 175 countries.



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I
Organisation and sponsor of many electrical and electronic standards and are a technical professional association throughout 175 countries.



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I
Organisation and sponsor of many electrical and electronic standards and are a technical professional association throughout 175 countries.



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I
Organisation and sponsor of many electrical and electronic standards and are a technical professional association throughout 175 countries.



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers I
Organisation and sponsor of many electrical and electronic standards and are a technical professional association throughout 175 countries.



Intermediate Frequency I
Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, carriers are not modulated directly and instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed, then at a later circuit stage, the IF signal will be converted up to the transmission frequency band.



Intermediate Frequency I
Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, carriers are not modulated directly and instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed, then at a later circuit stage, the IF signal will be converted up to the transmission frequency band.



Intermediate Frequency I
Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, carriers are not modulated directly and instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed, then at a later circuit stage, the IF signal will be converted up to the transmission frequency band.



Intermediate Frequency I
Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, carriers are not modulated directly and instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed, then at a later circuit stage, the IF signal will be converted up to the transmission frequency band.



Intermediate Frequency I
Radio communications systems modulate a carrier frequency with a baseband signal in order to achieve radio transmission. In many cases, carriers are not modulated directly and instead, a lower IF signal is modulated and processed, then at a later circuit stage, the IF signal will be converted up to the transmission frequency band.



Image Frequency I
Receivers typically convert RF signals to a lower Intermediate Frequency (IF) for demodulation. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the “image frequency” is often generated and filtered out.



Image Frequency I
Receivers typically convert RF signals to a lower Intermediate Frequency (IF) for demodulation. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the “image frequency” is often generated and filtered out.



Image Frequency I
Receivers typically convert RF signals to a lower Intermediate Frequency (IF) for demodulation. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the “image frequency” is often generated and filtered out.



Image Frequency I
Receivers typically convert RF signals to a lower Intermediate Frequency (IF) for demodulation. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the “image frequency” is often generated and filtered out.



Image Frequency I
Receivers typically convert RF signals to a lower Intermediate Frequency (IF) for demodulation. In addition to the IF, a second signal, called the “image frequency” is often generated and filtered out.



Impedance I
Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow and is measured in ohms. For DC systems, impedance and resistance are the same, defined as the voltage across an element divided by the current (R = V/I). In AC systems, the “reactance” enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance. Impedance in an AC system is still measured in ohms and represented by the equation Z = V/I, but V and I are frequency-dependent.

Discovered by Oliver Heaviside, 1886




Impedance I
Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow and is measured in ohms. For DC systems, impedance and resistance are the same, defined as the voltage across an element divided by the current (R = V/I). In AC systems, the “reactance” enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance. Impedance in an AC system is still measured in ohms and represented by the equation Z = V/I, but V and I are frequency-dependent.

Discovered by
Oliver Heaviside, 1886




Impedance I
Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow and is measured in ohms. For DC systems, impedance and resistance are the same, defined as the voltage across an element divided by the current (R = V/I). In AC systems, the “reactance” enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance. Impedance in an AC system is still measured in ohms and represented by the equation Z = V/I, but V and I are frequency-dependent.

Discovered by
Oliver Heaviside, 1886




Impedance I
Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow and is measured in ohms. For DC systems, impedance and resistance are the same, defined as the voltage across an element divided by the current (R = V/I). In AC systems, the “reactance” enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance. Impedance in an AC system is still measured in ohms and represented by the equation Z = V/I, but V and I are frequency-dependent.

Discovered by
Oliver Heaviside, 1886




Impedance I
Z, is a measure of the opposition to electrical flow and is measured in ohms. For DC systems, impedance and resistance are the same, defined as the voltage across an element divided by the current (R = V/I). In AC systems, the “reactance” enters the equation due to the frequency-dependent contributions of capacitance and inductance. Impedance in an AC system is still measured in ohms and represented by the equation Z = V/I, but V and I are frequency-dependent.

Discovered by
Oliver Heaviside, 1886




Image Rejection I
Measure of the ability of a receiver to reject signals at its image frequency. Expressed as a ratio, in dB, the sensitivity of a receiver, at the desired frequency, versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.



Image Rejection I
Measure of the ability of a receiver to reject signals at its image frequency. Expressed as a ratio, in dB, the sensitivity of a receiver, at the desired frequency, versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.



Image Rejection I
Measure of the ability of a receiver to reject signals at its image frequency. Expressed as a ratio, in dB, the sensitivity of a receiver, at the desired frequency, versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.



Image Rejection I
Measure of the ability of a receiver to reject signals at its image frequency. Expressed as a ratio, in dB, the sensitivity of a receiver, at the desired frequency, versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.



Image Rejection I
Measure of the ability of a receiver to reject signals at its image frequency. Expressed as a ratio, in dB, the sensitivity of a receiver, at the desired frequency, versus the sensitivity at the image frequency.



Inductance I
L, is the property of an electrical conductor in which a change in electrical current, induces an electromotive force in both the conductor and any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.


A steady current creates a steady magnetic field as described by the Oersted Law and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, as described by the Faraday Law of Induction and according to Lenz Law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance, induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current, self-inductance. The term inductance was named by Oliver Heaviside in 1886 and the use of the symbol L for inductance, is in honour of physicist Heinrich Lenz.


The International Units of SI, has the measurement unit for inductance as the henry, with the unit symbol H, in honour of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Michael Faraday.

Discovered by Michael Faraday, 1831




Inductance I
L, is the property of an electrical conductor in which a change in electrical current, induces an electromotive force in both the conductor and any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.


A steady current creates a steady magnetic field as described by the Oersted Law and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, as described by the Faraday Law of Induction and according to Lenz Law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance, induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current, self-inductance. The term inductance was named by Oliver Heaviside in 1886 and the use of the symbol L for inductance, is in honour of physicist Heinrich Lenz.


The International Units of SI, has the measurement unit for inductance as the henry, with the unit symbol H, in honour of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Michael Faraday.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1831




Inductance I
L, is the property of an electrical conductor in which a change in electrical current, induces an electromotive force in both the conductor and any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.


A steady current creates a steady magnetic field as described by the Oersted Law and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, as described by the Faraday Law of Induction and according to Lenz Law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance, induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current, self-inductance. The term inductance was named by Oliver Heaviside in 1886 and the use of the symbol L for inductance, is in honour of physicist Heinrich Lenz.


The International Units of SI, has the measurement unit for inductance as the henry, with the unit symbol H, in honour of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Michael Faraday.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1831




Inductance I
L, is the property of an electrical conductor in which a change in electrical current, induces an electromotive force in both the conductor and any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.


A steady current creates a steady magnetic field as described by the Oersted Law and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, as described by the Faraday Law of Induction and according to Lenz Law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance, induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current, self-inductance. The term inductance was named by Oliver Heaviside in 1886 and the use of the symbol L for inductance, is in honour of physicist Heinrich Lenz.


The International Units of SI, has the measurement unit for inductance as the henry, with the unit symbol H, in honour of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Michael Faraday.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1831




Inductance I
L, is the property of an electrical conductor in which a change in electrical current, induces an electromotive force in both the conductor and any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.


A steady current creates a steady magnetic field as described by the Oersted Law and a time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, as described by the Faraday Law of Induction and according to Lenz Law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance, induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current, self-inductance. The term inductance was named by Oliver Heaviside in 1886 and the use of the symbol L for inductance, is in honour of physicist Heinrich Lenz.


The International Units of SI, has the measurement unit for inductance as the henry, with the unit symbol H, in honour of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Michael Faraday.

Discovered by
Michael Faraday, 1831




Inductive Reactance I
XL, is due to electric currents produce magnetic fields which change as a result of the back and forth current oscillations. This difference in the magnetic field induces another electric current to flow in the same wire and in opposition to the original current flow, resulting in the inductive reactance being in opposition to the change of current through an element. This effect results in a delay, or a phase shift, of the alternating current with respect to alternating voltage. As a reference, an ideal inductor (with no resistance) will cause the current to lag the voltage by a quarter cycle, or 90°.


XL = ωL = 2 π ƒ L


Inductive reactance XL (Ω for Ohms) is proportional to the sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ (Hz for Hertz) and the inductance L (H for Henry).

Discovered by George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Inductive Reactance I
XL, is due to electric currents produce magnetic fields which change as a result of the back and forth current oscillations. This difference in the magnetic field induces another electric current to flow in the same wire and in opposition to the original current flow, resulting in the inductive reactance being in opposition to the change of current through an element. This effect results in a delay, or a phase shift, of the alternating current with respect to alternating voltage. As a reference, an ideal inductor (with no resistance) will cause the current to lag the voltage by a quarter cycle, or 90°.


XL = ωL = 2 π ƒ L


Inductive reactance XL (Ω for Ohms) is proportional to the sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ (Hz for Hertz) and the inductance L (H for Henry).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Inductive Reactance I
XL, is due to electric currents produce magnetic fields which change as a result of the back and forth current oscillations. This difference in the magnetic field induces another electric current to flow in the same wire and in opposition to the original current flow, resulting in the inductive reactance being in opposition to the change of current through an element. This effect results in a delay, or a phase shift, of the alternating current with respect to alternating voltage. As a reference, an ideal inductor (with no resistance) will cause the current to lag the voltage by a quarter cycle, or 90°.


XL = ωL = 2 π ƒ L


Inductive reactance XL (Ω for Ohms) is proportional to the sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ (Hz for Hertz) and the inductance L (H for Henry).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Inductive Reactance I
XL, is due to electric currents produce magnetic fields which change as a result of the back and forth current oscillations. This difference in the magnetic field induces another electric current to flow in the same wire and in opposition to the original current flow, resulting in the inductive reactance being in opposition to the change of current through an element. This effect results in a delay, or a phase shift, of the alternating current with respect to alternating voltage. As a reference, an ideal inductor (with no resistance) will cause the current to lag the voltage by a quarter cycle, or 90°.


XL = ωL = 2 π ƒ L


Inductive reactance XL (Ω for Ohms) is proportional to the sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ (Hz for Hertz) and the inductance L (H for Henry).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Inductive Reactance I
XL, is due to electric currents produce magnetic fields which change as a result of the back and forth current oscillations. This difference in the magnetic field induces another electric current to flow in the same wire and in opposition to the original current flow, resulting in the inductive reactance being in opposition to the change of current through an element. This effect results in a delay, or a phase shift, of the alternating current with respect to alternating voltage. As a reference, an ideal inductor (with no resistance) will cause the current to lag the voltage by a quarter cycle, or 90°.


XL = ωL = 2 π ƒ L


Inductive reactance XL (Ω for Ohms) is proportional to the sinusoidal signal frequency ƒ (Hz for Hertz) and the inductance L (H for Henry).

Discovered by
George Ashley Campbell, 1899




Infrared Radiation I
Light spectrum of 700 nanometres, 430 THz to 1 mm, 300 GHz. Falling below the visible light spectrum, infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light, with part of this spectrum radiated as heat. Infrared capabilities are used by thermal-imaging cameras to examine temperature limits in insulation and electrical systems, night-vision devices, photography and astronomy, imaging and identifying highly red-shifted objects of the early universe.

Discovered by Sir Frederick William Herschel, 1800




Infrared Radiation I
Light spectrum of 700 nanometres, 430 THz to 1 mm, 300 GHz. Falling below the visible light spectrum, infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light, with part of this spectrum radiated as heat. Infrared capabilities are used by thermal-imaging cameras to examine temperature limits in insulation and electrical systems, night-vision devices, photography and astronomy, imaging and identifying highly red-shifted objects of the early universe.

Discovered by
Sir Frederick William Herschel, 1800




Infrared Radiation I
Light spectrum of 700 nanometres, 430 THz to 1 mm, 300 GHz. Falling below the visible light spectrum, infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light, with part of this spectrum radiated as heat. Infrared capabilities are used by thermal-imaging cameras to examine temperature limits in insulation and electrical systems, night-vision devices, photography and astronomy, imaging and identifying highly red-shifted objects of the early universe.

Discovered by
Sir Frederick William Herschel, 1800




Infrared Radiation I
Light spectrum of 700 nanometres, 430 THz to 1 mm, 300 GHz. Falling below the visible light spectrum, infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light, with part of this spectrum radiated as heat. Infrared capabilities are used by thermal-imaging cameras to examine temperature limits in insulation and electrical systems, night-vision devices, photography and astronomy, imaging and identifying highly red-shifted objects of the early universe.

Discovered by
Sir Frederick William Herschel, 1800




Infrared Radiation I
Light spectrum of 700 nanometres, 430 THz to 1 mm, 300 GHz. Falling below the visible light spectrum, infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light, with part of this spectrum radiated as heat. Infrared capabilities are used by thermal-imaging cameras to examine temperature limits in insulation and electrical systems, night-vision devices, photography and astronomy, imaging and identifying highly red-shifted objects of the early universe.

Discovered by
Sir Frederick William Herschel, 1800




InterModulation Distortion I
Signal errors of a type that manifests when two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices resulting in new frequency components being created, that are not in the original signal.



InterModulation Distortion I
Signal errors of a type that manifests when two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices resulting in new frequency components being created, that are not in the original signal.



InterModulation Distortion I
Signal errors of a type that manifests when two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices resulting in new frequency components being created, that are not in the original signal.



InterModulation Distortion I
Signal errors of a type that manifests when two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices resulting in new frequency components being created, that are not in the original signal.



InterModulation Distortion I
Signal errors of a type that manifests when two signals mix in non-linear circuits or devices resulting in new frequency components being created, that are not in the original signal.



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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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Joint Photography Experts Group J
Method of digital image compression, with an adjustable compression ratio between storage size and image quality. Maximum image size of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels = 4,294,836,225 pixels.
Joint Photography Experts Group J
Method of digital image compression, with an adjustable compression ratio between storage size and image quality. Maximum image size of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels = 4,294,836,225 pixels.
Joint Photography Experts Group J
Method of digital image compression, with an adjustable compression ratio between storage size and image quality. Maximum image size of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels = 4,294,836,225 pixels.
Joint Photography Experts Group J
Method of digital image compression, with an adjustable compression ratio between storage size and image quality. Maximum image size of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels = 4,294,836,225 pixels.
Joint Photography Experts Group J
Method of digital image compression, with an adjustable compression ratio between storage size and image quality. Maximum image size of 65,535 × 65,535 pixels = 4,294,836,225 pixels.
Joule J
Joule, J

SI Derived Unit

Energy, Work, Amount of Heat

SI Derived Quantity

kg·m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This is the basic unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. As a unit of electrical energy it is equal to the energy carried by 1 coulomb of charge being propelled by an electromotive force of 1 volt.

Named after Joseph Henry




Joule J
Joule, J

SI Derived Unit

Energy, Work, Amount of Heat

SI Derived Quantity

kg·m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This is the basic unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. As a unit of electrical energy it is equal to the energy carried by 1 coulomb of charge being propelled by an electromotive force of 1 volt.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Joule J
Joule, J

SI Derived Unit

Energy, Work, Amount of Heat

SI Derived Quantity

kg·m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This is the basic unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. As a unit of electrical energy it is equal to the energy carried by 1 coulomb of charge being propelled by an electromotive force of 1 volt.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Joule J
Joule, J

SI Derived Unit

Energy, Work, Amount of Heat

SI Derived Quantity

kg·m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This is the basic unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. As a unit of electrical energy it is equal to the energy carried by 1 coulomb of charge being propelled by an electromotive force of 1 volt.

Named after
Joseph Henry




Joule J
Joule, J

SI Derived Unit

Energy, Work, Amount of Heat

SI Derived Quantity

kg·m2·s−2

SI Base Expression

This is the basic unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy. As a unit of electrical energy it is equal to the energy carried by 1 coulomb of charge being propelled by an electromotive force of 1 volt.

Named after
Joseph Henry




K
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K
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
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K
Katal K
Katal, kat

SI Derived Unit

Catalytic Activity

SI Derived Quantity

mol · s-1

SI Base Expression

This is a unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes (measuring the enzymatic activity level in enzyme catalysis) and other catalysts. The katal is not used to express the rate of a reaction; that is expressed in units of concentration per second (or moles per litre per second). It is used to express catalytic activity which is a property of the catalyst.



Katal K
Katal, kat

SI Derived Unit

Catalytic Activity

SI Derived Quantity

mol · s-1

SI Base Expression

This is a unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes (measuring the enzymatic activity level in enzyme catalysis) and other catalysts. The katal is not used to express the rate of a reaction; that is expressed in units of concentration per second (or moles per litre per second). It is used to express catalytic activity which is a property of the catalyst.



Katal K
Katal, kat

SI Derived Unit

Catalytic Activity

SI Derived Quantity

mol · s-1

SI Base Expression

This is a unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes (measuring the enzymatic activity level in enzyme catalysis) and other catalysts. The katal is not used to express the rate of a reaction; that is expressed in units of concentration per second (or moles per litre per second). It is used to express catalytic activity which is a property of the catalyst.



Katal K
Katal, kat

SI Derived Unit

Catalytic Activity

SI Derived Quantity

mol · s-1

SI Base Expression

This is a unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes (measuring the enzymatic activity level in enzyme catalysis) and other catalysts. The katal is not used to express the rate of a reaction; that is expressed in units of concentration per second (or moles per litre per second). It is used to express catalytic activity which is a property of the catalyst.



Katal K
Katal, kat

SI Derived Unit

Catalytic Activity

SI Derived Quantity

mol · s-1

SI Base Expression

This is a unit for quantifying the catalytic activity of enzymes (measuring the enzymatic activity level in enzyme catalysis) and other catalysts. The katal is not used to express the rate of a reaction; that is expressed in units of concentration per second (or moles per litre per second). It is used to express catalytic activity which is a property of the catalyst.



Kelvin K
Kelvin, K

SI Base Unit

Temperature, Θ

SI Base Quantity

The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.”


Proposed:
“The kelvin, K, is the unit of thermodynamic temperature; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to be equal to exactly 1.380 65X × 10−23 when it is expressed in the unit s−2·m2·kg·K−1, which is equal to J·K−1.”

Discovered by Lord William Kelvin, 1848




Kelvin K
Kelvin, K

SI Base Unit

Temperature, Θ

SI Base Quantity

The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.”


Proposed:
“The kelvin, K, is the unit of thermodynamic temperature; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to be equal to exactly 1.380 65X × 10−23 when it is expressed in the unit s−2·m2·kg·K−1, which is equal to J·K−1.”

Discovered by
Lord William Kelvin, 1848




Kelvin K
Kelvin, K

SI Base Unit

Temperature, Θ

SI Base Quantity

The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.”


Proposed:
“The kelvin, K, is the unit of thermodynamic temperature; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to be equal to exactly 1.380 65X × 10−23 when it is expressed in the unit s−2·m2·kg·K−1, which is equal to J·K−1.”

Discovered by
Lord William Kelvin, 1848




Kelvin K
Kelvin, K

SI Base Unit

Temperature, Θ

SI Base Quantity

The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.”


Proposed:
“The kelvin, K, is the unit of thermodynamic temperature; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to be equal to exactly 1.380 65X × 10−23 when it is expressed in the unit s−2·m2·kg·K−1, which is equal to J·K−1.”

Discovered by
Lord William Kelvin, 1848




Kelvin K
Kelvin, K

SI Base Unit

Temperature, Θ

SI Base Quantity

The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). The triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.”


Proposed:
“The kelvin, K, is the unit of thermodynamic temperature; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant to be equal to exactly 1.380 65X × 10−23 when it is expressed in the unit s−2·m2·kg·K−1, which is equal to J·K−1.”

Discovered by
Lord William Kelvin, 1848




Kilogram K
Kilogram, kg

SI Base Unit

Mass, M

SI Base Quantity

The gram, 1/1000th of a kilogram, was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of water. The original prototype kilogram, manufactured in 1799, has a mass equal to the mass of 1.000’028 dm3 of water at its maximum density at approximately 4 °C. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix (kilo) as part of its name and directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property. Three SI Base units (Cd, A, mol) and 17 SI Derived units (N, Pa, J, W, C, V, F, Ω, S, Wb, T, H, kat, Gy, Sv, lm, lx) are defined relative to the kilogram. Only 8 SI units do not require the kilogram in their definition: temperature (K, °C), time and frequency (s, Hz, Bq), length (m), and angle (rad, sr). The International Committee for Weights and Measures have undertaken to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, as in the Planck constant.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.”


Proposed:
“The kilogram, kg, is the unit of mass; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 06X × 10−34 when it is expressed in the unit s−1·m2·kg, which is equal to J·s.”



Kilogram K
Kilogram, kg

SI Base Unit

Mass, M

SI Base Quantity

The gram, 1/1000th of a kilogram, was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of water. The original prototype kilogram, manufactured in 1799, has a mass equal to the mass of 1.000’028 dm3 of water at its maximum density at approximately 4 °C. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix (kilo) as part of its name and directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property. Three SI Base units (Cd, A, mol) and 17 SI Derived units (N, Pa, J, W, C, V, F, Ω, S, Wb, T, H, kat, Gy, Sv, lm, lx) are defined relative to the kilogram. Only 8 SI units do not require the kilogram in their definition: temperature (K, °C), time and frequency (s, Hz, Bq), length (m), and angle (rad, sr). The International Committee for Weights and Measures have undertaken to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, as in the Planck constant.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.”


Proposed:
“The kilogram, kg, is the unit of mass; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 06X × 10−34 when it is expressed in the unit s−1·m2·kg, which is equal to J·s.”



Kilogram K
Kilogram, kg

SI Base Unit

Mass, M

SI Base Quantity

The gram, 1/1000th of a kilogram, was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of water. The original prototype kilogram, manufactured in 1799, has a mass equal to the mass of 1.000’028 dm3 of water at its maximum density at approximately 4 °C. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix (kilo) as part of its name and directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property. Three SI Base units (Cd, A, mol) and 17 SI Derived units (N, Pa, J, W, C, V, F, Ω, S, Wb, T, H, kat, Gy, Sv, lm, lx) are defined relative to the kilogram. Only 8 SI units do not require the kilogram in their definition: temperature (K, °C), time and frequency (s, Hz, Bq), length (m), and angle (rad, sr). The International Committee for Weights and Measures have undertaken to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, as in the Planck constant.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.”


Proposed:
“The kilogram, kg, is the unit of mass; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 06X × 10−34 when it is expressed in the unit s−1·m2·kg, which is equal to J·s.”



Kilogram K
Kilogram, kg

SI Base Unit

Mass, M

SI Base Quantity

The gram, 1/1000th of a kilogram, was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of water. The original prototype kilogram, manufactured in 1799, has a mass equal to the mass of 1.000’028 dm3 of water at its maximum density at approximately 4 °C. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix (kilo) as part of its name and directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property. Three SI Base units (Cd, A, mol) and 17 SI Derived units (N, Pa, J, W, C, V, F, Ω, S, Wb, T, H, kat, Gy, Sv, lm, lx) are defined relative to the kilogram. Only 8 SI units do not require the kilogram in their definition: temperature (K, °C), time and frequency (s, Hz, Bq), length (m), and angle (rad, sr). The International Committee for Weights and Measures have undertaken to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, as in the Planck constant.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.”


Proposed:
“The kilogram, kg, is the unit of mass; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 06X × 10−34 when it is expressed in the unit s−1·m2·kg, which is equal to J·s.”



Kilogram K
Kilogram, kg

SI Base Unit

Mass, M

SI Base Quantity

The gram, 1/1000th of a kilogram, was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of water. The original prototype kilogram, manufactured in 1799, has a mass equal to the mass of 1.000’028 dm3 of water at its maximum density at approximately 4 °C. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with a prefix (kilo) as part of its name and directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property. Three SI Base units (Cd, A, mol) and 17 SI Derived units (N, Pa, J, W, C, V, F, Ω, S, Wb, T, H, kat, Gy, Sv, lm, lx) are defined relative to the kilogram. Only 8 SI units do not require the kilogram in their definition: temperature (K, °C), time and frequency (s, Hz, Bq), length (m), and angle (rad, sr). The International Committee for Weights and Measures have undertaken to redefine the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant of nature, as in the Planck constant.


Formally, as defined in 2014:
“The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.”


Proposed:
“The kilogram, kg, is the unit of mass; its magnitude is set by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant to be equal to exactly 6.626 06X × 10−34 when it is expressed in the unit s−1·m2·kg, which is equal to J·s.”



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