THALLIUM, Tl (81)

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Thallium

Tl (81)

ˈθæliəm

PHONETICS

Thallium is a soft grey post-transition metal is not found free in nature. When isolated, it resembles tin, but discolours when exposed to the air. Used for flame spectroscopy, in which thallium produces a notable green spectral line. 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry, and the remainder used in pharmaceutical and glass manufacturing.

ELEMENT BRIEF

1861 by Sir William Crookes, England.

DISCOVERY

Greek 'thallos' meaning 'green twig'.

ETYMOLOGY

Thallium

ELEMENT

Tl

SYMBOL

81

ATOMIC NUMBER

7440-28-0

CAS NUMBER

element

ELEMENTAL SPECTRUM


Silver

ELEMENTAL COLOUR


-

REFRACTIVE INDEX


0.450

POISSON RATIO


17.248 cm³

MOLAR VOLUME


26.40M Pa, 260.547'7 Atm

BRINELL HARDNESS


1.20

MOHS HARDNESS


-

VICKERS HARDNESS


818 m/s, Mach 2.384'8

SPEED OF SOUND


43.00G Pa, 424.377'0k Atm

BULK MODULUS


2.80G Pa, 27.633'9k Atm

SHEAR MODULUS


8.00G Pa, 78.953'9k Atm

YOUNG MODULUS


ALLOTROPES

element element element

577.15 K, 304.00 °C

MELTING POINT


1,746.15 K, 1,473.00 °C

BOILING POINT


-

AUTOMATIC IGNITION


-

FLASHPOINT


-

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE


-

CRITICAL PRESSURE


8.300'000 W/(m K)

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY


0.000'029'9 K¯¹

THERMAL EXPANSION


129.00 J/(kg K)

SPECIFIC HEAT


4.200 kJ/mol

HEAT FUSION


165.000 kJ/mol

HEAT VAPORISATION


-

HEAT COMBUSTION


-

CURIE POINT


-

NEEL POINT


-

ADIABATIC INDEX


Solid

PHASE


Conductor

ELECTRICAL TYPE


6.70M S/m

CONDUCTIVITY


150.00n Ω.m

RESISTIVITY


2.380 K

SUPERCONDUCTING POINT


Diamagnetic

MAGNETIC TYPE


-0.000'000'003'0

MASS SUSCEPTIBILITY


-0.000'000'000'613'00

MOLAR SUSCEPTIBILITY


-0.000'035'600'00

VOLUME SUSCEPTIBILITY


Basic Metal

CLASSIFICATION


204.383'332'5

ATOMIC WEIGHT


154 pm

ATOMIC RADIUS


144 pm

COVALENT RADIUS SINGLE BOND


142 pm

COVALENT RADIUS DOUBLE BOND


150 pm

COVALENT RADIUS TRIPLE BOND


196 pm

VAN DER WAALS RADIUS


[Xe]6s²4f¹⁴5d¹⁰6p¹

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION


Hexagonal, Close Packed Single

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE


11.850'00 g/cm³

DENSITY AS SOLID


11.220'00 g/cm³

DENSITY AS LIQUID


-

DENSITY AS GAS


p6₃/mmc

SPACE GROUP NAME


194

SPACE GROUP NUMBER


π/2, π/2 2π/3

LATTICE ANGLES


345.66, 345.66 552.48 pm

LATTICE CONSTANTS


3

VALENCE


1.62

ELECTRONEGATIVITY


0.38 kJ/mol

ELECTRON AFFINITY


IONISATION ENERGY

element element element

0.000'000'1 %

UNIVERSE


0.000'007'9 %

METEORITES


0.000'000'1 %

SUN


0.000'053 %

EARTH CRUST


0.000'000'000'1 %

OCEANS


0.000'01 %

HUMANS


Stable

HALF LIFE


Stable

LIFETIME


6p¹ = 6, 1, -1, +1/2

QUANTUM NUMBERS


9.890'00 b σs

NEUTRON CROSS SECTION


3.430'00 b σa

NEUTRON MASS ABSORPTION


STABLE ISOTOPES

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UNSTABLE ISOTOPES

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ISOTOPIC CHAIN


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